Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Angela Carters The Bloody Cha essays

Angela Carters The Bloody Cha essays "How can the bitten apple flesh out its scar again?": Bridging the gap between our Natural and animal selves, in Angela Carters The Bloody Chamber Angela Carters The Bloody Chamber sets out to examine sexuality for women within a misogynistic society. I believe that Carters transformation of such classic fairy tales as Beauty and the Beast, and Little Red Riding Hood, is her attempt at bringing to light ideas that have always existed within those tales yet have never been understood. What Cater is trying to show is that society embraces these fair tales for a reason, and its not because of the handsome prince s, and happy endings but rather because of the fact that they show how todays culture has distanced itself from nature, and the problems that arise as a result of that. Carter seems to feel as though civilization has pushed nature aside, and is fully intent on covering it up, and that todays culture would rather go after what is fake and unreal rather than what comes from nature. The question that The Bloody Chamber seeks to answer is ...how can the bitten apple flesh out its scar again? In other words, now that society has become so distant form nature, how can it go back, and repair the damage it has caused? Carters answer comes in the form of one word mutilation, which in her case is not a reference to bodily harm, but rather the idea of mute or silence. I would like to argue that it is this idea of muting or silencing nature that is the key to understanding how the bitten apple can flesh out its scar again. In my opinion, Carter is suggesting that it is when we stop silencing the voice of nature and begin to embrace it, that the irreparable gulf that currently separates us from our Natural and animal selves can be bridged. At that point, the scar that marks our separation from Nature can finally begin to he...

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE)

Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE) The light rare earth elements, light-group rare earths, or LREE are a subset of the lanthanide series of  the rare earth elements, which are themselves a special set of transition metals. Like other metals, the light rare earths have a shiny metallic appearance. They tend to produce colored complexes in solution, conduct heat and electricity, and form numerous compounds. None of these elements occurs in pure form naturally. Although the elements are not that rare in terms of element abundance, they are extremely difficult to isolate from each other. Also, the minerals that bear rare earth elements are not uniformly distributed across the globe, so the elements are uncommon in most countries and must be imported. Elements That Are Light Rare Earth Elements Youll see different sources site slightly different lists of elements classified as LREEs, but the US Department of Energy, US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey, and national labs use a very specific set of criteria to assign elements to this group. The light-group rare earth elements are based on the configuration of  4f electrons. LREEs have no paired electrons. This makes the LREE group consist of 8 elements with atomic number 57 (lanthanum, with no unpaired 4f electrons) through atomic number 64 (gadolinium, with 7 unpaired 4f electrons): lanthanum (La) - used in high-end optical lenses and in  lanthanum nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteriescerium (Ce) - the 25th most abundant element in the Earths crust (so not rare at all), used in catalytic converters and the oxide as a polishing powder  praseodymium (Pr) - oxide is used as a catalyst in plastic manufacturing and is combined with zirconium oxide to produce a vivid yellow pigment used in ceramicsneodymium (Nd) - used to make super-strong magnets; neodymium-iron-boron (NeFeB) magnets are used to make cell phones vibratepromethium (Pm) - used to make a phosphorescent pigment and to make the starter switch for fluorescent lampssamarium (Sm) - used in high strength magnets and to make servo-motorseuropium (Eu) - used to make phosphors, notably the reddish-orange color of screens and monitorsgadolinium (Gd) - used in a reactor to control rods to control fission reaction and as a contrast agent to improve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Uses of the LREE All of the rare earth metals have great economic importance. There are many practical applications of the light rare earth elements, including: lasermagnetsphosphorsluminous paintscatalystsmetallurgysuperconductorssensorsflat panel displaysmedical tracersmicrophones and speakersrechargeable batteriesfiber opticsnumerous defense applications The Special Case of Scandium The element scandium is considered to be one of the rare earth elements. Although it is the lightest of the rare earths, with atomic number 21, it is not classified as a light rare earth metal. Why is this? Basically, its because an atom of scandium does not have an electron configuration comparable to that of the light rare earths. Like other rare earths, scandium typically exists in a trivalent state, but its chemical and physical properties dont warrant grouping it with either the light rare earths or the heavy rare earths. There are no middle rare earths or other classification, so scandium is in a class by itself.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Differentiate a nation, a state, and a nation-state Essay

Differentiate a nation, a state, and a nation-state - Essay Example Ethnic nations originate from common races configured by similar traditions. The Japanese group of people is an ethnic nation of Yamato. Civic nation entails dissimilar population of different ethnic groups sharing a common belonging. The United States is an exemplary of civic nation since the country’s population is a diverse combination without common ancestry, similar language groups or dominant religion. A state refers to a given country with self-governing political units that hold elite jurisdiction over a given territory or region. The defining terms of a state include the population, given boundaries, and absolute sovereignty. The mandates of the said country maintains jurisdiction over the given population within a territory. â€Å"States or countries are independent political units that claim exclusive jurisdiction over defined territories and over all of the people and activities within them† (Dahlman & William 410). Different governments lack the power to exercise the absolute authority. As such, the state enhances or forces applicable patterns of a population’s activity to obey the rules provided in a certain political map. Cultural aspects define the organization of a said state in any portioning of a state. States exercise absolute sovereignty where a democratic space entails exclusive rights to the available population. â€Å"The idea that a state has the exclusive right to rule over a demarcated space and all the people and resources within it is known as sovereignty† (Dahlman & William 412). State features include transferred self-governing powers to a central government structure. The population of a state exhibit common identities with related origins. The nation state refers to a given state that rules a region with a population arising from united cultures. The concept of nation states embraces the initial development of nations that later attain protective states. The nation state focuses on dominate

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

An essay about the supply and demand Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

An about the supply and demand - Essay Example In order to maximize profit, suppliers have to sell their goods and services at high prices but this has to consider the purchasing power of the intended market. This paper is a critical evaluation of supply and demand as principles of economics. Concepts of Supply and Demand The Law of Demand The law of demand states that the higher the price of a commodity, the lower the quantity demanded cateris paribus, while the lower the prices the higher the demand (Fisher 36). Cateris paribus in this case implies that all other factors that influence demand are held at a constant. These are for example weather, taste and preferences, income among others. This is due to the fact that the law of demand is basically dependent on two variables i.e. quantity demanded and price. The following diagram is a demand curve, which is a graphical depiction of the law of demand. Fig 1 From the diagram, it can be noted that the quantity demanded was highest, (Q3), at the lowest price, P1, while it was lowes t at price P3, which was highest. However, it is important to note that not all goods abide by the law of demand. These are for example giffen goods and products that act as status symbols. Giffen goods are defined as inferior commodities whose demand goes up with rising prices while the vice versa is also true (Baye 42). Inferior, in this context, does not necessarily imply that the goods are of poor quality. For example, if the staple food in a family is rice, products such as meat may be perceived as superior. If the price of rice goes up, it would be normal to find people buying more rice and less of meat and when the prices go down, more meat is bought in comparison to rice. The two goods are not substitutes and in this case, it is assumed that the consumer can afford both items therefore eliminating opportunity cost. On the other hand, status symbols are goods whose value creates a perceivable higher social standing in the society (Gorman 29). For example, if the price of a Me rcedes Benz makes it unaffordable for the common market as opposed to that of a Toyota sedan, then, any person owning a Mercedes would be perceived as having an economic advantage over the owner of a sedan. It therefore goes without saying that a reduction in the price of a Mercedes would make it lose its value as a status symbol and that would definitely make it lose its demand to other more expensive and luxurious vehicles. On the other hand, an increase in its price would increase its value as a status symbol thus increasing its demand thereby defying the law of demand. Movements along a Demand Curve versus Shifts in Demand Curve A movement along a demand curve is dependent on one variable only which is price. From the diagram below, DD1and DD2 represents the demand for a commodity, with prices plotted on the Y axis while quantity demanded on the X axis. DD1 will be used to illustrate movement along a demand curve while DD2 illustrates a shift in a demand curve. Fig. 2 On the DD1 curve, it is notable that when the price was at p1, the quantity demanded was highest at Q3. However, after the prices increased to p2 and p3, the quantity demanded moved to the lower side i.e. from Q3 to Q2 and Q1 respectively. However, the demand curve shifted entirely to the right as a result of an increase in income. Notice that prices p1 to p3 remained static but still, the quantity

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Visitor Attraction Management on London Eye UK Essay - 1

Visitor Attraction Management on London Eye UK - Essay Example This essay discusses the origin of the London eye and its birth, and the millions of people, both citizens and tourists that it attracts. Its features and major activities that are inclusive including the recent developments and innovations are discussed. The opportunity section covers a wide range of those opportunities that the management has grabbed and made a fortune out of them. Secondly, the foreseen opportunities like the 2012 London Olympics are also discussed, as well as survey on external environment and how to outwit the rival competitor. The challenges are inclusive of what the attraction has faced since its birth and the future hindrances that may occur as its operations continue. Moreover, the paper discusses the competitive advantage and the factors that would lead to the attraction attaining and sustaining its competitive advantage. Recommendations are given on the issues that need to be evaluated to maintain the stability of the attraction. Marketing strategies like cost leadership and product differentiation are explained. Effective management is also explained in a way that would help the attraction to improve its employee’s performance and at the same time meeting the customer’s needs. The tourist classification is reviewed hence providing management with options on how to continue attracting a good number of visitors. Mainly the role of management in this attraction business is explained through a committed management team and motivated staff, which contribute to success.

Friday, November 15, 2019

The Importance Of Agriculture To Nigeria Environmental Sciences Essay

The Importance Of Agriculture To Nigeria Environmental Sciences Essay Agriculture is the engine that stimulates economic change in a nation development; Agriculture occurs when people begin planting and cultivating crops. It is said to be natures food web and the rechaneling of energy for human planting and animal consumption. To simplify, agriculture involves redirecting natures natural flow of the food web. Nigeria is very blessed with agriculture resources, and if you recall, this is what the green colour symbolizes in our nations flag. Most parts of the country experience rich soil, and good rainfall, not to mention the warm year, round temperature. About 80% of the land is cultivable, and about 13% of the land is forested, and livestock are also maintained by farmers. In the 1960s agriculture was the foundation for the nations economy and Nigeria was self sufficient in terms of food. Before the discovery of oil, our economy was sustained by agriculture. The sector remains the largest contributor to the Nigerian economy, accounting for over 38% of the non-oil foreign exchange earning and employing about 70% of the active labour force of the population. Although, the sector has suffered much neglect since the discovery of petroleum in commercial quantity in 1958 but its importance cannot be over emphasized in the nations economy. Data shows that at independence in 1960 the contribution of agriculture to the GDP was about 60%, which is typical for developing agrarian nations. In 1998, Agriculture was said to have contributed an estimated 32% of Gross Domestic Product (DGP) to Nigerian economy and an estimated 32 percent of labour force was employed. In 2006 contributed 43% to GDP of US $142 billion and employed 70% of the population. The importance of Agriculture is so numerous but to mention a few. People depend on a wide range of Agricultural products in almost all aspects of life. It is a key economic driver. It is central to individual livelihoods and alleviates poverty. Provider of energy fuel-wood and medical plants, it helps in Nations economic growth, e.g. Agriculture contributes between 40 and 60% of the GDP of many African Countries. Agriculture is a key to healthy biosphere, it provide food, which is a key determinant of human health. In general the contribution of Agriculture sector provide food incremental markets for new products manufactured in the industrial sector, it has contributed immensely on the supply of new materials to other sectors, tax revenue to the Government to provide Foreign exchange. Having seen some of the importance of Agriculture, how then do we attain 70% growth in Agriculture sector each year? To achieve growth, bold steps must be taken towards changing our orientation on Agriculture and reversing the trend. For long we have merely been paying lip service to the revival of Agriculture as the main stay of our economy. It is on the drive to bring back the past glories of Agriculture and use it to complement our oil earning: that we came up with the initiative tagged Quest to achieved food sufficiency. CHPTER 2 QUEST TO ACHIEVED FOOD SFFICIENCY Quest to achieved food sufficiency is a way of making sure our food, Fibers, energy and recreational opportunities cheap, sufficient high quality and safe. Quest to achieve food sufficiency is the availability of food or food in excess. This can be accomplished by involving Nigerian youths in farming. That is inculcating the sense of participation in Agricultural sector. Gone are the days where farming is left for retired workers and those in the rural areas. Food is the most essential thing in mans live. According to Abraham Maslow an industrial psychologist, came up with the theory of physiological needs of man and top on the list was the desire for food as the basic need. According to him, after a man has satisfied his need for food, he beings to crave for clothing and then for shelter. Today food which is the basic need of man is readily unavailable all over talk less of man being satisfied with it. This as whole led to world food crisis and no country is unaffected. Particularly years, 2007-2008 saw dramatic rises in world food price, creating a global crisis and causing political and economical instability and social unrest in both poor and developed nations. Although it is almost impossible to pinpoint the exact cause of soaring food price, experts have placed the blame on rising fuel costs, lower agricultural production, weather shocks, more meat consumption, shifts to bio-fuel crops and bad policies. The hike in food price, threaten to increase malnutrition. Malnutrition impairs the ability to lean or to work and reduces resistance to disease. Hunger is a cause of poverty. Last week UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reported that 963 million people are now hungry, which means another 40 million people have been pushed into hunger. In addition, child mortality (about 3.5 children die yearly) is attributed to malnutrition since childrens health and cognitive development is sensitive to the overall development. Yet, in the face of this poverty and hunger, our work force is not left untouched or unaffected as this poverty and hunger reduces productivity. EFFECT OF THE WORLD FOOD CRISIS ON NIGERIA Nigeria has never had food security. It has as usual been importing rice, beans and other food items. Since the sources of supplied of these importation are in food crisis it has a spill over effect on Nigeria. The most silent area is that food price will be on the high side, and result to low quantity of food to be import thereby, causing instability in the country economic, social and political sector. Many will starve to death, crime rate will be on the high side, and the rate of poverty will be extremely high. To avert possible food crisis in Nigeria serious, practical and effective implementation needs to be taking in agriculture sector. Poverty in Nigeria is predominantly rural. Of all Nigerians who are poor, nearly two-third lives in rural areas. For the near future therefore, reducing poverty in Nigeria will depend largely on stimulating rural growth. The most powerful engine of rural growth is agricultural growth, because agriculture has important forward and backward linkages to the local economy on both the production and the consumption side. This will in turn make Nigeria to be sufficient in food and agricultural production, and join the league of industrialized nations by the year 2020 because, agriculture is and has always been a major player in the game of industrial revolution. MECHANISED FARMING AND MAXIMISING AGRICULTURE OUT PUT IN NIGERIA Mechanization of the agricultural industry is the way out of solving Nigerias problem instead of the tractorization belief by some. Moreover, this can be achieve by matching up human input with mechanization, bringing in machinery and increase the scale of production, so that whatever you produce will match the population growth rate. No doubt, Nigeria soil is rich and the climate good enough to grow nearly all kinds of food crop anybody can think of. What is required is to get an expert that will manage the soil. Some areas might not belief in tractorization but the use of animal plough, the best is to improve on the technique so you can accelerate their production rate. Some areas have zero tillage, you plant and it will germinate, that kind of place does not need tractors but planters. In addition, part of mechanization plan that is proper is to plan for irrigation itself to water the plant where there is no rain. There is need for improvement on subsistent farmers as record has it that 95% of agriculture product is from then. Subsistent farmers cultivate not more than four hectares. To move from the level of subsistent farming to scale farming, mechanization input must be there. The average yield of maize crop in Nigeria is 3.5 tones per hectare, compared to 8.6 tones per hectare in developed countries. This is very low and cannot be equal with the work force. With this low yield, commercial agriculture is hard to come by. From the global experience its suggests that the path ways along which commercial agriculture can develop, is by successful model ranging from highly diversified systems made up of small holders who deeply involved in commercial production to more specialized systems made up of large-scale mechanized farmers who produce exclusively for the market. Mechanized farming is an easy or stress free farming and the yield is far higher than hoe/merchant farming. It goes along way attracting the youths INVOLVING NIGERIAN YOUTH IN MORDEN DAY AGRICULTURE One of the factors that threatened the sustainability of agriculture is the lack of involvement of our youth in it. It is becoming increasingly difficult to attract our youth in agricultural pursuits. The average age of persons involved in domestic agriculture is 50-65 years old and without increased participation from our youth, by the year 2014, the average age range of agriculture producers will be approximately 65-70 years. The contribution of the youth is essentially important in the development of rural areas. The youth are essential human beings in the development of rural areas. Studies have shown that rural areas, especially in developing countries like Nigeria, have high population ratio when compared to the urban centre. Youths in this context has been defined as individuals male or female above ten but below forty-five years. Indeed, the vital source of work force for development is seen within this range. The employment rate in this country is very low. According to United Nations, population found, approximately three million people in Nigeria, mainly youths, move into the labour market annually with just few getting jobs. These young Nigerians can be re-trained in agriculture sector. When we groom our young people in the process of domestic agriculture, it will in turn develop the rural areas, which is the root of economic upliftment for the nation. The YPAD initiated QUEST TO ACHIEVED FOOD SUFFICIENCY in order to involve young people in agriculture sector. This is a yearly program. The program provides the opportunity for development of practical skills in the areas of farm management, production and marketing of crops, livestock, as well as the business administration of a successful farm enterprise. ACTUALIZING MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND 7-POINT AGENDA The MDGs are simply targets and indicators to measure the progress in achieving the eradication of poverty, achieving universal access to primary education, promoting gender parity and women empowerment, reducing child mortality, improve maternal health, combating HIV/AIDS and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, developing a global partnership for development. This project was signed in 2000 about nine years ago, with just six years reach 2015. The impact in agric sector is not visible like in the aspect of HIV/AIDS. The YPAD initiative is concentrating on youths and youths are in the vanguard of change. This program will contribute to the achievement of some of the MDGs goals such as, eradication of poverty by being self-employed, promoting gender parity and empowerment of women by giving equal opportunity to the female youth. Areas such as reducing of child mortality improve maternal health; ensure environmental sustainability and developing a global partnership for development will feel the impact. This project will be cited in the rural areas, since it has been revealed that the youth constitute the highest percentage of the rural population. The development of rural areas in developing countries is the root of economic upliftment for the nation. 7-POINT AGENDA The Yaradua 7-point agenda is the vehicle designed by the administration to take Nigeria to a state where the necessary infrastructure will be in place for our collective benefit. Its expected, that, the Nigerian economy would become one of the top 20 in the world by 2020 through the agenda. That means we are aiming at a growth rate of 13 percent per year in the next twelve years and must be sustained to remain in the big league. The seven elements of the agenda are Energy/Power, Security/Niger Delta, Wealth Creation, Food Security, Education/Human Capital Development, Transportation/Mass Transit and Land Reforms. This project is designed to improve the general well being of the citizens and taking Nigeria to the biggest 20 economies in the world by the year 2020. To attain growth rate of 13% annually, some sectors that leads to export of its products has to be consider. And one of this sector include agriculture which could earn the country over 60% GPD annually which is one of the objective of YPAD. This program will touch the lives of many Nigerians and see to the contribution towards the success of 7-point agenda. CHAPTER 3 PLAN OF ACTION We have mapped out strategic plans of inculcating unemployed youths into farming sectors. This plan has worked in the entertainment industry and today the entertainment industry is known all over the country. Massive awareness would be created through media, posters, handbill, signpost, billboard, Local government offices etc. whereby some unemployed youths who are willing to go into farming business or who want to be self-employed will be encouraged to come out in mass and register. The registration will take place in any of the banks within the country for the period of two months only. Immediately after registration audition commences, only twenty five persons will be short listed to participate in the program. Land will be allocating to the twenty-five candidates. Since this is our first time, we intend to start with only twenty-five persons, five per group that is forming only five groups. The program is expected to last for only three months. During this period participants will be accommodated and well catered for. At the end of the third month, harvesting will take place. They will be judge base on the quantities of their farm product. The participants are to undergo series of lecture such as farm management, keeping of farm record, pest control, storage and preservation of farm products and entrepreneurship. In order to make the program more attractive, participants will pay visit to farms, organization and some personnel. Area/Location Without land for cultivation, this project cannot be achieved. Acquiring land for cultivation is one of the major challenges most youth encounter. There is no doubt Nigeria is blessed with verse land. From research, it was estimated that 79 million hectares out of Nigerias total land area of about 91million hectares were arable. However, only about 32 million hectares (or 46% of the cultivable area) were being cultivated out of which 90% of agricultural output is accounted for household with less than two hectares under cropping. The remaining land are left uncultivated these lands can be cultivated by Nigerias youth if given the chance and means. Three states are chosen namely FCT, Niger and Nasarawa States. But only one out of the three states wills this event take place and this depends on the availability of land. Consolation Prices: To make the program more interesting and Competitive, there is going to be prize for the best group, as well as other groups. After harvesting the group with the highest yield have be sponsored for next farming season. The idea of introducing prize is to enhance their performance, help to bring out the best in each participant. Harvesting: The farm products belong to the participants. The instructors will teach the participants how to preserve their farm products and expose them to the buyers. CHAPTER 4 CROP Since this is going to be the first event we intended to start with maize and cowpea. Maize is grown virtually in all parts of the country; it is grown more in the middle belt and in the north central. Maize: Maize (zea mays) is an annual plant which belongs to family Gramineae and Genus zea. Zea mays L. have a normal Chromosome complement of ten pairs. It is divided into seven groups. The classification is based largely on the character of the kernels. Maize is a warm weather plant. It grows from sea level to 300 metre altitudes. The most suitable temperature for germination is 21oc and for growth 32oc. Fifty to Sixty centimeters of well distributed rain is conducive to proper growth. Maize is a cereal plant that produces grains that can be cooked, roasted, fried, ground, pounded or crushed to prepare various food items. Apart from direct human consumption maize is also useful as medicines and as raw materials for industries such as breweries, pharmaceutical companies, baby cereals, livestock feeds and other industries. The global production of maize is estimated to about 300 Million tones per year. In Nigeria, its production is quite common in all parts of the country, form the north to the south, with an annual production of about 5.6 Million tones. Until recent years, the bulk of maize grain produced in Nigeria was from the south-west zone. It was reported that western Nigeria generally produced about 50% of Nigeria grain maize, the remaining 50% being split between the north and east. Although large proportion of the grain maize is still produce form the south-western part, there has been a dramatic shift of dry grain production to the savanna, especially the Northern Guinea savanna i.e. the Middle and Northern belt of Nigeria where sunshine is adequate and rainfall is moderate. Under these conditions, storage of grains can be accomplished without much damage from insect pests. In these zones farmers tends to prefer maize cultivation to sorghum. This trend may have been brought about for several reasons including availability of streak resistant varieties for all ecological zones in Nigeria, availability of high yielding hybrid varieties, increase in maize demand coupled with the federal Government imposed ban on importation of rice, maize and wheat. Local production had to be geared up to meet the demand for direct human consumption and industries. The name maize is derived from the South American Indian Arawat Carib word Mahiz. It is also known as Indian corn or corn in America. It was introduced into Nigeria probably in the 6th century by the Portuguese. Today maize crop covers about 1Milion hectare out of a Million hectares it occupied in Africa and it is the second most important cereal crop in Nigeria. The two varieties of maize are Hybrid and composite but for now we are making do with composite maize. LAND CLEARING Land clearing must be carried out with minimal displacement of the topsoil. It requires judicious use of heavy machinery coupled with sound soil conservation measures that will preserve the soil fertility status, which varies under long term fallow vegetation. Minimum tillage is a feasible way of sustaining high soil fertility under intensive maize farming. PLANTING TIME Sowing date is an essential component of crop management. Yields decline with lateness of planting after an optimum time, usually the start of the rains. Response of varieties to other inputs is dependent upon planting time. Optimum planting in each of the major agro ecological zones of Nigeria falls with these following ranges. Forest Zone Mid April 2nd Week in May Forest Savanna Transition 3rd Week in April 3rd Week in May. Northern Guinea Savanna Last Week in May 1st Week in June Sudan Savanna First 2 Weeks in June SOIL Maize is best adapted to well drain Sandy loam to silty loam soils. Water stagnation is extremely harmful to the crop; therefore, proper drainage is a must for the success of the crop especially during Kharif season. Maize will not thrive on heavy clays, especially lowlands. It can be grown successfully in soil whose PH ranges from 5.5 to 6.5 PLANT NUTRIENTS AND FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS For good growth and high yield, the maize plant must be supplied with adequate nutrients particularly nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. DISEASE CONTROL Although several diseases have been identified on maize in Nigeria, only few of them significantly reduce maize yields. They are maize streak, downy mildew, maize mottle/chlorotic stunk, curvularia leaf spot, stalk and ear rots. In order to make farming economically feasible, resistant line were bred and made available to farmers. With these efforts, maize streak, smut and rust have been kept under control. Genes for downy mildew resistance has been incorporated into streak resistant varieties. Scientists in Nigeria have developed high yielding disease resistant /tolerant maize varieties. The newly developed varieties of maize have between 90 and 95% resistance to the pathogen without extra fungicide protection. Striga hermonthica is a threat to increased maize production in Nigeria particularly in the high yield potential savanna zone. Scientists have identified some inbreed and hybrids that have consistently demonstrated tolerance to S. hermonthica under heavy infestation also reported that the use of NPK and urea fertilizers as effective means of controlling S. hermonthica in maize field. WEED CONTROL Weeds cause severe yield reduction in maize in Nigeria because they complete with the crop for nutrients. Water and light weed controls is the most expensive operation in traditional maize farming since it is procured manually. Often, the labour is too expensive causing many farmers to abandon weed control thereby resulting in very low yields. INSECT PEST CONTROL There has been a renewed interest in the use of natural plant products in the protection of stored agricultural product against insect pest in storage. The use of plant products in form of powders in the management of stored products coleopteran is the most convenient, the powders are easy to apply, and the commodities remain clean after treatments. Moreover, the moisture contents of plants have been used successfully for the control of different species of stored product pests. POTENTIAL IMPACTS/POTENTIAL BENEFICIARIES Maize grain production in Nigeria would have at least double from 7m metric tones in 2004 to 14.0M metric tones by 2007 or 21.0M metric tones by 2010. Public/Private synergy for enhanced production established. Role of Nigeria as a lead player in disaster mitigation strengthened. Income generation, wealth creation, poverty reduction and improved food security through maize farming and related agribusiness improved. COWPEA Cowpea is one of the most ancient crops known to man. Its origin and subsequent domestication is associated with pearl millet and sorghum in Africa. It is now a broadly adapted and highly variable crop, cultivated around the world primarily for seed, but also as a vegetable, a cover crop and for fodder. Cowpea has a number of common names, including crowder pea, black-eyed pea and southern pea. It is known internationally as lubia, niebe, coupe or feijole. However, they are all the species Vigna unguiculata (L) walp, in older references may be identified as vigna sinensis (L). The largest production is in Africa, with Nigeria and Niger predominating. World wide production of cowpeas is approximately 20Million acres. Cowpea is considered more tolerant to drought than Soya beans and better adapted to sandy soils. Many cultivars have a vining growth habit or bush type cultivars. But bush type is better suited for direct combining. PLANT DESCRIPTION All cultivated cowpea varieties are considered warm season and adapted to heat and drought conditions. Cowpeas typically reach a canopy height of 30 to 36 inches, although the more determinate bush types may reach only 24 inches. The seed pods are borne above the leaf axil, making the pods very visible. The seeds pod is typically 3 to 6 inches long and has 6 to 13 seeds per pod. The seed weight per bush is 60 pounds with about 3,000 to 4,000 seeds per pound. UTILIZATION The fresh type referred to as southern peas are shelled green and the peas can be cooked fresh and canned or frozen for later use, but there is also consumption of the whole pea pod as a fresh vegetable. While the dried beans is frequently sold directly to the consumer after cleaning or freezing. Cowpea is consider nutritious with a protein content of about 23%, fat content of 1.3%, fiber content of 1.8%, carbohydrate content of 67% and water content of 8 9%. As in most legumes, the amino acid profile complements cereal grains. PLANTING/GROWING For optimum yield, cowpeas should be planted in early June, although planting dates from late may through mid June are appropriate. The bush types yield better on closer row spacing. The seed should be planted similar to soybeans at 1 to 11/2 inches deep. FERTILITY MANAGEMENT As a legume, cowpea fixes its own nitrogen and does not need nitrogen fertilizer. Infact, some of the vigorous, vining, varieties of cowpeas are excellent nitrogen producers as a cover crop. The soil PH should be 6.0 or higher. DISEASES AND INSECTS The major insect pest is cowpea curculio, and the major disease is root knot, a severe root disease induced by root knot nematodes (melo dogyne spp) but active breeding has taken place for resistant varieties. GROWING Growing cowpea is fairly straight forward, with management practices being similar to soybeans. Proper site selection is important. Cowpea is well adapted to sandy soils, and will perform well on rich, well drained soils, but should not be grown on wet or poorly drained soils. INTERCROPPING AND CROP ROTATION Cowpea has out standing potential for intercropping and crop rotation. In Africa, cowpea has been intercropped for a longtime with various other crops such as maize, groundnuts, millet and other grins. Report shows that 98% of cowpea grown in Africa is intercropped. Cowpea can be intercropped with taller plants, such as maize, particularly in high rainfalls areas, due to their exceptional shade tolerance. They are also outstanding as straight rotational crop because of their susceptibility to root knot nematodes and their beneficial effect on subsequent maize crops, which lasts even for the second succeeding crop. ADVATAGES FOR INTERCROPPING WITH MAIZE Higher total yields then sole crop yields, probably due to less intraspecific competition. Greater yield stability More efficient utilization of environmental resources Better weed control Provision of insurance against crop failure. Improved quality provided by variety Maize as a sole crop requires a larger area to produce the same yield as the maize component in an intercropping system. CHAPTER 5 PROPOSED ESTIMATES FOR QUEST TO ACHIEVEFOOD SUFFICIENCY 2008 LAND About 10,000 hectares located at Yangoji, Dafa, Tungan Galadima, Kwali Area Council all in FCT. The land is lease at N510, 000/hectare for 50years. For 25hectare it will cost N12, 750,000. But there is provision for mortgage finance option whereby the same land is used as collateral. With mortgage finance we are allowed to pay 50% (N6, 625,000.00) and spread the remaining payment within a particular period. The land can be renewed after 50years. No doubt, the mortgage finance scheme is preferred. FURNISHED THREE BEDROOM APARTMENT APPLICANCES QTY UNITY PRICE(N) AMOUNT(N) Accommodation: Three bedroom flat for 25 persons 2 250,000 500,000.00 Carpet for the three rooms 6 room 2,500/room 15,000.00 Rug in the seating room 2room 45,000 90,000.00 Six spring student mattresses 25 4000 100,000.00 Pillows 25 500 12,500.00 21 Flat screen Television 2 50,000 100,000.00 Refrigerator 2 85,000 170,000.00 Stabilizer 2 15000 30,000.00 Ceiling fans 8 3000 24,000.00 Generator of 1.5kv Yamaha 2 50,000 100,000.00 Total 1,141500.00 PUBLICITY Announcement/airing on Electronic Media 4,500,000.00 Newspaper: Full page three times for three weeks 1,134,000.00 Posters 500,000.00 Banners 500,000.00 Hand bill 200,000.00 Bill board 3,000,000.00 TOTAL N9, 334,000.00 FEEDING MEAL FOR TWENTY FIVE PERSONS Three hundred naira per meal, for three square meal per person in a day it is N900 (nine hundred naira) N300/meal/N900/person/day. Three square meal for twenty five persons in a day cost N22, 500 (twenty two thousand five hundred) N22, 500/twenty five persons/three square meal/day. Twenty five persons in ninety days N2, 025,000.00 (two million twenty five thousand naira) N2, 025,000/twenty five persons/ninety days Bottle water N500, 000.00 TOTAL N2, 525,000.00 THE QUANTITY OF SEED NEEDED SEED QTY/Ha QTY/20Ha UNIT PRICE AMOUNT Maize seed (ACR 97) 20kg 500kg 150/kg 75,000.00 Cowpea 20kg 500kg 200/kg 100,000.00 Apron star 55,000.00 Pest Control/weeding 985,000.00 TOTAL 1,215,000.00 Apron star (seed greasing): for slurry seed, treatment, fungicide, insecticide and seed treatment. PLANT NUTRIENTS Plant nutrients involve organic and inorganic nutrients. Nutrients Bags/ha. Bags/20ha. Unit Price/Bag(N) Amount (N) Fertilizer (15:15:15) NPK 6 bags 150 bags 3,000/bag 450,000.00 Urea (20:10:10) 2 bags 50 bags 2,500/bag 125,000.00 Organic nutrients/manure 100,000.00 TOTAL 675,000.00 FARM MACHINERY FARM TOOLS QTY UNIT PRICE(N) AMOUNT(N) Hoes (Galma) 5 1,500 7,500.00 Machetes 5 1,000 5,000.00 Tractor (Hiring for 3days) 2 15,000/day 90,000.00 Planter (plating for 3day) 2 5,000/day 30,000.00 Tot

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Labelling Theory

Labeling theory had its origins in Suicide, a book by French sociologist Emile Durkheim. He found that crime is not so much a violation of a penal code as it is an act that outrages society. He was the first to suggest that deviant labeling satisfies that function and satisfies society's need to control the behavior. As a contributor to American Pragmatism and later a member of the Chicago School, George Herbert Mead posited that the self is socially constructed and reconstructed through the interactions which each person has with the community. The labeling theory suggests that people obtain labels from how others view their tendencies or behaviors. Each individual is aware of how they are judged by others because he or she has attempted many different roles and functions in social interactions and has been able to gauge the reactions of those present. This theoretically builds a subjective conception of the self, but as others intrude into the reality of that individual's life, this represents objective data which may require a re-evaluation of that conception depending on the authoritativeness of the others' judgment. Family and friends may judge differently from random strangers. More socially representative individuals such as police officers or judges may be able to make more globally respected judgments. If deviance is a failure to conform to the rules observed by most of the group, the reaction of the group is to label the person as having offended against their social or moral norms of behavior. This is the power of the group: to designate breaches of their rules as deviant and to treat the person differently depending on the seriousness of the breach. The more differential the treatment, the more the individual's self-image is affected. Labeling theory concerns itself mostly not with the normal roles that define our lives, but with those very special roles that society provides for deviant behavior, called deviant roles, stigmatic roles, or social stigma. A social role is a set of expectations we have about a behavior. Social roles are necessary for the organization and functioning of any society or group. We expect the postman, for example, to adhere to certain fixed rules about how he does his job. Deviance† for a sociologist does not mean morally wrong, but rather behavior that is condemned by society. Deviant behavior can include both criminal and non-criminal activities. Investigators found that deviant roles powerfully affect how we perceive those who are assigned those roles. They also affect how the deviant actor perceives himself and his relationship to society. The deviant roles and the labels attached to them func tion as a form of social stigma. Always inherent in the deviant role is the attribution of some form of â€Å"pollution† or difference that marks the labeled person as different from others. Society uses these stigmatic roles to them to control and limit deviant behavior: â€Å"If you proceed in this behavior, you will become a member of that group of people. † Whether a breach of a given rule will be stigmatized will depend on the significance of the moral or other tenet it represents. For example, adultery may be considered a breach of an informal rule or it may be criminalized depending on the status of marriage, morality, and religion within the community. In most Western countries, adultery is not a crime. Attaching the label â€Å"adulterer† may have some unfortunate consequences but they are not generally severe. But in some Islamic countries, zina is a crime and proof of extramarital activity may lead to severe consequences for all concerned. Stigma is usually the result of laws enacted against the behavior. Laws protecting slavery or outlawing homosexuality, for instance, will over time form deviant roles connected with those behaviors. Those who are assigned those roles will be seen as less human and reliable. Deviant roles are the sources of negative stereotypes, which tend to support society's disapproval of the behavior. [edit]George Herbert Mead One of the founders of social interactionism, George Herbert Mead focused on the internal processes of how the mind constructs one's self-image. In Mind, Self, and Society (1934),[1] he showed how infants come to know persons first and only later come to know things. According to Mead, thought is both a social and pragmatic process, based on the model of two persons discussing how to solve a problem. Our self-image is, in fact, constructed of ideas about what we think others are thinking about us. While we make fun of those who visibly talk to themselves, they have only failed to do what the rest of us do in keeping the internal conversation to ourselves. Human behavior, Mead stated, is the result of meanings created by the social interaction of conversation, both real and imaginary. [edit]Frank Tannenbaum Frank Tannenbaum is considered the grandfather of labeling theory. His Crime and Community (1938),[2] describing the social interaction involved in crime, is considered a pivotal foundation of modern criminology. While the criminal differs little or not at all from others in the original impulse to first commit a crime, social interaction accounts for continued acts that develop a pattern of interest to sociologists. Tannenbaum first introduced the idea of ‘tagging'. [3] While conducting his studies with delinquent youth, he found that a negative tag or label often contributed to further involvement in delinquent activities. This initial tagging may cause the individual to adopt it as part of their identity. The crux of Tannenbaum's argument is that the greater the attention placed on this label, the more likely the person is to identify themselves as the label. Kerry Townsend writes about the revolution in criminology caused by Tannenbaum's work: â€Å"The roots of Frank Tannenbaum’s theoretical model, known as the â€Å"dramatization of evil† or labeling theory, surfaces in the mid- to late-thirties. At this time, the ‘New Deal' legislation had not defeated the woes of the Great Depression, and, although dwindling, immigration into the United States continued (Sumner, 1994). 4] The social climate was one of disillusionment with the government. The class structure was one of cultural isolationism; cultural relativity had not yet taken hold. ‘The persistence of the class structure, despite the welfare reforms and controls over big business, was unmistakable. ‘[5] The Positivist School of Criminological thought was still dominant, and in many states, the s terilization movement was underway. The emphasis on biological determinism and internal explanations of crime were the preeminent force in the theories of the early thirties. This dominance by the Positivist School changed in the late thirties with the introduction of conflict and social explanations of crime and criminality†¦ â€Å"One of the central tenets of the theory is to encourage the end of labeling process. In the words of Frank Tannenbaum, â€Å"the way out is through a refusal to dramatize the evil†, the justice system attempts to do this through diversion programs. The growth of the theory and its current application, both practical and theoretical, provide a solid foundation for continued popularity. [6]: [edit]Edwin Lemert It was sociologist Edwin Lemert (1951) who introduced the concept of â€Å"secondary deviance. † The primary deviance is the experience connected to the overt behavior, say drug addiction and its practical demands and consequences. Secondary deviation is the role created to deal with society's condemnation of the behavior. With other sociologists of his time, he saw how all deviant acts are social acts, a result of the cooperation of society. In studying drug addiction, Lemert observed a very powerful and subtle force at work. Besides the physical addiction to the drug and all the economic and social disruptions it caused, there was an intensely intellectual process at work concerning one's own identity and the justification for the behavior: â€Å"I do these things because I am this way. † There might be certain subjective and personal motives that might first lead a person to drink or shoplift. But the activity itself tells us little about the person's self-image or its relationship to the activity. Lemert writes: â€Å"His acts are repeated and organized subjectively and transformed into active roles and become the social criteria for assigning status†¦.. When a person begins to employ his deviant behavior or a role based on it as a means of defense, attack, or adjustment to the overt and covert problems created by the consequent societal reaction to him, his deviation is secondary† [7] [edit]Howard Becker While it was Lemert who introduced the key concepts of labeling theory, it was Howard Becker who became their champion. He first began describing the process of how a person adopts a deviant role in a study of dance musicians, with whom he once worked. He later studied the identity formation of marijuana smokers. This study was the basis of his Outsiders published in 1963. This work became the manifesto of the labeling theory movement among sociologists. In his opening, Becker writes: â€Å"†¦ social groups create deviance by making rules whose infraction creates deviance, and by applying those roles to particular people and labeling them as outsiders. From this point of view, deviance is not a quality of the act the person commits, but rather a consequence of the application by other of rules and sanctions to an ‘offender. ‘ The deviant is one to whom that label has been successfully applied; deviant behavior is behavior that people so label. [8] While society uses the stigmatic label to justify its condemnation, the deviant actor uses it to justify his actions. He wrote: â€Å"To put a complex argument in a few words: instead of the deviant motives leading to the deviant behavior, it is the other way around, the deviant behavior in time produces the deviant motivation. â€Å"[9] Becker's immensely popular views were also subjected to a barrage of criticism, most of it blaming him for neglecting the influence of other biological, genetic effects and personal responsibility. In a later 1973 edition of his work, he answered his critics. He wrote that while sociologists, while dedicated to studying society, are often careful not to look too closely. Instead, he wrote: â€Å"I prefer to think of what we study as collective action. People act, as Mead and Blumer have made clearest, together. They do what they do with an eye on what others have done, are doing now, and may do in the future. One tries to fit his own line of action into the actions of others, just as each of them likewise adjusts his own developing actions to what he sees and expects others to do. [10] Francis Cullen reported in 1984 that Becker was probably too generous with his critics. After 20 years, his views, far from being supplanted, have been corrected and absorbed into an expanded â€Å"structuring perspective. â€Å"[11] [edit]Albert Memmi In The Colonizer and the Colonized (1965) Albert Memmi described the deep psychological effects of the social stigma created by the domination of one group by another. He wrote: â€Å"The longer the oppression lasts, the more profoundly it affects him (the oppressed). It ends by becoming so familiar to him that he believes it is part of his own constitution, that he accepts it and could not imagine his recovery from it. This acceptance is the crowning point of oppression. â€Å"[12] In Dominated Man (1968), Memmi turned his attention to the motivation of stigmatic labeling: it justifies the exploitation or criminalization of the victim. He wrote: â€Å"Why does the accuser feel obliged to accuse in order to justify himself? Because he feels guilty toward his victim. Because he feels that his attitude and his behavior are essentially unjust and fraudulent†¦. Proof? In almost every case, the punishment has already been inflicted. The victim of racism is already living under the weight of disgrace and oppression†¦. In order to justify such punishment and misfortune, a process of rationlization is set in motion, by which to explain the ghetto and colonial exploitation. â€Å"[13] Central to stigmatic labeling is the attribution of an inherent fault: It is as if one says, â€Å"There must be something wrong with these people. Otherwise, why would we treat them so badly? † [edit]Erving Goffman Perhaps the most important contributor to labeling theory was Erving Goffman, President of the American Sociological Association, and one of America's most cited sociologists. His most popular books include The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life,[14] Interaction Ritual, [15] and Frame Analysis. [16] His most important contribution to labeling theory, however, was Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity published in 1963. [17] Unlike other authors who examined the process of adopting a deviant identity, Goffman explored the ways people managed that identity and controlled information about it.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Long Ridge Gliding Club Case Study

Long Ridge Gliding Club Long Ridge Gliding Club is a not profit organization which is run by its members. Currently the club has around 150 members who range for novice to the experts. The clubs also offers trial flights to the member of the public and then try to convince them to take up membership. The members have to help each other to get airborne. They also have to help the staff with attending to the casual flyers.Throughout the whole year the essential tasks such as the maintaining the gliders, getting them out of the hangars, towing them to the launch points, staffing the winches, keeping the flying log, bringing back the gliders and providing look out cover is taken on a voluntary basis by the club members. At times when the weather is not good the members may not get a flight at all. Due to the bad weather the members do not get enough flying time. The club chairman is therefore under pressure to stop trial flights though they provide the club with revenue to finance its op erations.Q1) Evaluate the service to the club members and casual flyers by completing a table? Ans: The services that Long Ridge Gliding Club offers to the club members and casual flyers are mentioned in the table below: | Club Members | Casual Flyers| Products| Membership| Trial Flight| Customers| Accessibility Location| General public Experience| Product range| Long duration| Short duration varies Reliability | Design Changes| None| Quality of service| Delivery | Drinks, food, accommodation and flying facilities | Only flying facilities| Quality| Skill| Safety| Volume per service type| 150| 700|Profit Margins| High| Low| Q2) Chart the five performance objectives to show the differing expectations of club members and casual flyers and compare these with the actual service delivered. Ans: Cost: The cost incurred is always an important aspect for any organization. It is same in case of Long Ridge Gliding Club also. The member's want the services at a price which covers the operating cost of the business and the casual flyers want a lifetime experience at a cheap price. From what can see in the case Long Ridge Gliding Club is offering the services at cheap and reasonable prices.Dependabilityz Dependability is another important factor. The casual flyers have lot of faith on the club as they receive a dependable service. On the other hand the members don't get a flight on some days and just have to help the casual flyers. Flexibility: Flexibility is also very important. Everyone should be flexible enough to adjust to situations. Members wants the gliders readily available for them so that they can fly anytime of the day as per their wish and on the other hand the casual flyers want to fly after paying the charges of flying and enjoy the experience.So the members get to use the facilities of the club anytime they want to, while the casual flyers are one time users. However the club failed to satisfy their club members. Product quality: Quality of a product is somet hing which is looked very closely by the customers. But here in this case product quality is related to the safety of the gliders. The club provides well maintained gliders and winch machine for both the casual flyers and the members. Speed: Speed in which the services are offered is also important.The casual flyers would obviously be excited of the experience and expect that they would be attended immediately while the members know they might have to wait for their chance to fly for long. But for the actual service the casual flyers have to wait for the members to be free to help them, while the members want to fly the gliders according to their wish. But the company here in this case has failed because most of the time they are busy in helping casual flyers to fly. 3.What advice would you give to the chairman? Ans: Allow less number of Casual Flyers because the members are getting affected and they have to help them and also not get the time to fly, make permanent club members hap py because the club generates maximum revenue from them when compared to casual flyers. Casual flyers must pay more and must pay club members who are helping casual flyers because they are doing a lot of job and they need to get paid because they must make the members lose interest in the club.And also they can reduce the level of dissatisfaction. 1. Try to allow less number of Casual Flyers in the club. This would make the permanent club members happy. They have to keep in mind that the maximum share of the revenue is generated by the club members compared to Casual Flyers. 2. Increase the charges for casual flyers and pay the club members who are helping casual flyers to fly. This would help the club can reduce the level of dissatisfaction they are having due to absence of dedicated Gliders for them.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Health Care System In Turmoil Essay Example

Health Care System In Turmoil Essay Example Health Care System In Turmoil Paper Health Care System In Turmoil Paper Patient access to care and the cost of care are two of the main reasons for the current turmoil in the health care system in the United States. With over 50 million Americans who are uninsured today patients continue to struggle in order to maintain their health care or trying to gain health care to comply with the new Affordable Care Act. With the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act passing in 2010 some seem to believe a solution to some of the health care system issues that people were facing would be fixed. But in June of 2012 the law or rather the taxes were challenged in the United States Supreme courts by being stated that the Act be repealed as it was unconstitutional. With that the supreme courts upheld the law stating that it was constitutional and upheld the taxes. According to HealthReform. gov many Americans are not given choices of affordable health insurance based on the areas that they live in. Fifteen percent of Americans in rural areas live in poverty, compared to 12 percent of people in urban areas, leaving many unable to pay for health insurance (U. S. Department of Health Human Services. , 2014) One major problem of health care and the impact that it has on the consumer and the community would be the cost according to the HealthReform. gov website. Those that live in rural areas where poverty is higher have the highest rates of diseases that are chronic. Most have no insurance and that gives limits to having access to primary care physicians. The main goal of the national health care tax of 2010 was to permit coverage to all the citizens of the United States, as well as placing the necessary health care facilities in places that they were needed the most, such as in the rural areas of the United States (U. S. Department of Health Human Services. , 2014) When asked of most Americans what they believe the most important health care issues that face the United States, access to care and cost remains the most common responses (Newport, Jones, Saad, 2012). Some Americans feel that the national health care tax is suppose to be the final answer to our health care issues, but others feel that our health care system is in turmoil and it needs to be reformed even more so than it already has been done. One of the biggest benefits of having the Affordable care act (ACA) would be that it ended the discrimination that insurance companies were permitted to have based on pre-existing conditions. Now with the ACA a person is able to have a pre-existing condition and not be turned down as they were before. Under the ACA choices of affordable health insurance is now obtainable due to the creation of health insurance exchanges that will allow a family to choose a plan that fits their needs. These same exchanges permit the Affordable Care act to provide a tax credit for small businesses to allow them to purchase coverage as well. The Affordable Care Act will also decrease out-of-pocket spending for Americans in rural areas. This reformed health insurance will put limits on how much insurance companies can expect an individual to pay out-of-pocket. (U. S. Department of Health Human Services. 2014). With the redesigning of the healthcare delivery system, another benefit to the system would be that emergency room visits would be reduced as well as a reduced burden for administration of healthcare by allowing the providers to get rid of methods of charging for unnecessary paperwork (Grumbach,2009) The Affordable Care Act of 2010 also has risk such as those in poverty levels still unable to afford health care due to their specific states not changing their Medicaid requirements. According to the New York Times statement from the nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office, with the federal deficit lessening by $138 billion, the already weakened economy poses a great risk due to the cost of basic insurance coverage adding to the already expected cost of $938 billion in over a ten year period of time (The NY Times, 2012). Those risk of mandating that all Americans will face penalty if they have not purchased health insurance, even though there is no penalty defined in the Affordable Care Act, it is the posed risk that citizens are being forced by the government to purchase healthcare and makes people wonder just how much involvement does the government have in healthcare (Newport, Jones Saad, 2012) Reference Grumbach, K. , (2009). Redesign of the Healthcare Delivery System. JAMA, 302(21). Retrieved from http://jama. jamanetwork. com/article. aspx? articleid=184965. Newport, F. , Jones, J. , Saad, L. , 2012). Gallup Editors: American Views on the Healthcare Law, Americans are at best divided in support for the law. Retrieved from gallup. com/poll/155300/gallup-editors-americans-views-healthcare-law. aspx. The New York Times, Aug. , (2012). Health CareReform. Retrieved from http://topics. nytimes. com/top/news/health/diseasesconditionsandhealthtopics/health_insurance_and_ managed_care/health_care_reform/index. html. U. S. Department of Health Human Services. (2014). More Choices, Better Coverage: Health Insurance Reform and Rural America. Retrieved from https://web. archive. org/web/20121014040852/www. healthreform. gov/reports/ruralamerica/index. html

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Free Essays on Smuckers

This team was charged to investigate about this company named J.M. Smuckers. This project involves library research and telephone interviews involving all the different aspects already seen in class and comparing this terms in the company with the lectures that the class has read. The team started with the company’s history shown in their web page soon to be continued with the reason why this company is in the top 100 best companies in the fortune magazine, and we did this because it was the first step in the project to find a company with these requirements History It all began with Jerome Monroe Smucker and a family recipe for apple butter back in 1897. Jerome hand signed each crock jar as his personal guarantee of quality. Today, thay continue to back up that commitment with over 100 quality checkpoints as our fruit makes its way from field to jar. Back in 1897, in the Midwestern farming community of Orrville, Ohio, Jerome Monroe Smucker pressed locally grown apples into cider and apple butter. True to his upbringing, Jerome took great pride in a job well done and signed the lid of every crock of apple butter as his personal guarantee of quality. By adhering to a very simple set of Basic Beliefs, The J.M. Smucker Company grew and prospered. Today, Smucker’s sells their products in the whole world. While Orrville, Ohio, remains our headquarters, we now operate facilities throughout the United States and abroad to manufacture a wide range of products. From the small town beginning to their present worldwide distribution, pride in the family name has remained as strong as ever. Now, under the management of fourth-generation Smuckers, they continue to stand behind the guarantee of homemade taste, quality, and goodness. About the company The J.M. Smucker Company was founded in 1897 when the Company’s namesake and founder sold his first product apple butter from the back of a horse-drawn wagon. Today, over a ... Free Essays on Smuckers Free Essays on Smuckers This team was charged to investigate about this company named J.M. Smuckers. This project involves library research and telephone interviews involving all the different aspects already seen in class and comparing this terms in the company with the lectures that the class has read. The team started with the company’s history shown in their web page soon to be continued with the reason why this company is in the top 100 best companies in the fortune magazine, and we did this because it was the first step in the project to find a company with these requirements History It all began with Jerome Monroe Smucker and a family recipe for apple butter back in 1897. Jerome hand signed each crock jar as his personal guarantee of quality. Today, thay continue to back up that commitment with over 100 quality checkpoints as our fruit makes its way from field to jar. Back in 1897, in the Midwestern farming community of Orrville, Ohio, Jerome Monroe Smucker pressed locally grown apples into cider and apple butter. True to his upbringing, Jerome took great pride in a job well done and signed the lid of every crock of apple butter as his personal guarantee of quality. By adhering to a very simple set of Basic Beliefs, The J.M. Smucker Company grew and prospered. Today, Smucker’s sells their products in the whole world. While Orrville, Ohio, remains our headquarters, we now operate facilities throughout the United States and abroad to manufacture a wide range of products. From the small town beginning to their present worldwide distribution, pride in the family name has remained as strong as ever. Now, under the management of fourth-generation Smuckers, they continue to stand behind the guarantee of homemade taste, quality, and goodness. About the company The J.M. Smucker Company was founded in 1897 when the Company’s namesake and founder sold his first product apple butter from the back of a horse-drawn wagon. Today, over a ...

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Obesity In the US Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Obesity In the US - Research Paper Example who could bear to consume what they needed and figure out how to pay others to work for them were the ones that put on the additional pounds (Scherer). A significant change in the economics of obesity has observed and now the load of weight and stoutness falling excessively on poor people. A significant inverse relation can be seen between obesity and financial status in the developed countries, particularly among African-Americans. Although, obesity is the problem of the whole America, but African Americans are those who are at higher risk of getting obese if they do not change their lifestyle. Studies have shown that the socioeconomic factors are highly affecting the issue of obesity therefore; Obesity is at its height in African Americans. Three major socioeconomic factors have been identified through research that includes education, employment and health care. For instance, low education and low income groups are discovered to be emphatically connected with both obesity and corpulence Co morbidities in etiological studies. Scientists found that obesity with the passage of time in developed nations was connected with lower education levels and blue-collar working class. African Americans are the evidences of these proofs and studies regarding obesity in the US because most part of this population has low education, employment and income level. Compared to African Americans, the level of obesity is decreasin g among the white class Americans with the increase in their socioeconomic status. Unfortunately, the teenagers from the good socioeconomic status are also at the risk of obesity due to their eating habits, i.e., the trend of fast food. Sedentary grown-up in the United States consume a normal of 500–800 calories more for every day than required to keep up a normal weight. At that rate, they will gain many pounds in just a week. Food and food ads are easily accessible to them grabbing their attention to eat more. There are fewer exercise opportunities,

Friday, November 1, 2019

Microsoft and Corporate Social Responsibility Coursework

Microsoft and Corporate Social Responsibility - Coursework Example From the study, it was identified that Microsoft’s corporate social responsibility is restricted to the United States and the developed world. Hence, it is recommended that Microsoft must focus on the developing world and create a global CSR and transpose it to local units within which it operates. It is recommended that Microsoft must institute a proactive system of monitoring the civil society to identify what is most needed in a given locale so they can change their structures to provide the best and optimal level of support to people who are in need. It is also recommended that Microsoft must set up a system of creating software for evaluating and reviewing the needs of companies in relation to keeping their carbon emissions low so that their clients will institute and integrate environmental responsiveness into their operations.As the paper declares the fundamental purpose of this paper is to assess the component of corporate social responsibility in Microsoft in order to deduce a model for the conduct of structured CSR in Microsoft. This paper will examine the current features of Microsoft’s strategic plans and how it links up to the different components of the organisation include the economic, political, civil society and environment. From there, the research will recommend a plan for the attainment of CSR standards and targets for the firm.  Microsoft’s mission is to enable people and businesses throughout the world to realize their full potential.