Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Abortion: Murder or Necessity Abortion is defined as the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or embryo before it is viable. An abortion can occur spontaneously, in which case it is usually called a miscarriage, or it can be purposely induced. Abortion, when induced in accordance with the local law, is among the safest procedures in medicine. However, unsafe abortions (those performed by persons without proper training or outside of a medical environment) result in approximately 70 thousand deaths and 5 million disabilities per year globally each year, with 20 million of those performed unsafely.Life begins at conception which forms an unborn child (or Ã¢â¬Å"fetusÃ¢â¬ ). Abortion is an intentional violent act that kills an unborn baby, without any anesthesia, the baby is dismembered, torn apart, and vacuumed out of the mother. Dr. Micheline M. Mathews-Roth, Harvard Medical School, referenced medical textbooks that claimed that human life begins at conception. Dr. Jerome Lejeune, the Ã¢â¬Å"Father of Modern Genetics,Ã¢â¬ stated, Ã¢â¬Å"To accept the fact that after fertilization has taken place, a new human has come into being is no longer a matter of taste or opinion Ã¢â¬ ¦ t is plain experimental evidence. Ã¢â¬ During pregnancy, even though you feel nothing, your baby is kicking; clenching his fists, curling and fanning his toes, and is generally very active and comfortable inside you. In the past few years, medical research has shown that unborn babies can feel pain. Dr. H. M. Liley, the leading authority on the study of babies before birth, stated, Ã¢â¬Å"When doctors first began invading the sanctuary of the womb, they did not know that the unborn baby would react to pain in the same fashion as a child would. But they soon learned that he would. One believes that every fertilized egg is a sentient human person; abortion would be horrific, tragic, and lethal. But it would be no more murderous than any othe r kind of accidental death. During abortion, doctors or abortionist (the person who performs the operation), uses long cylindrical rods. Starting from the smallest and moving up in size, he inserts them into your cervical opening, stretching it as he progresses. When the cervix is open wide enough, he will put a hollow plastic tube, with a knife-like edge on its tip, through your cervix up into your uterus.The suction it creates is 29 times more powerful than a vacuum cleaner. It tears the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s body into pieces, and sucks it through the tube into a canister. The knife edge is used to cut the deeply rooted placenta from the uterine wall. The remains of the now-dead infant are then pulled out. Abortion is a tragedy not only for the unborn who will never experience life but for the mother also. What motivates an abortionist? What must they think as they slash and tear a baby apart or plunge a knife into its neck? Somehow, abortionists have become callused to the reality of the ir actions.Like ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Macbeth, they have blood on their hands, and it cannot be washed off. Many people have become apathetic about abortion. Since they have already been born, abortion is no threat to them personally. Why should they care about someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s baby? If there is any lesson to be learnt, it is that we should value and protect innocent human life even if it is not our own. Abortion is an intentional violent act that kills an unborn baby, without any anesthesia, the baby is dismembered, torn apart, and vacuumed out of the mother.Life begins at conception which forms an unborn child (or Ã¢â¬Å"fetusÃ¢â¬ ). The unborn child's DNA is that of an individual human being, distinct from its mother despite being naturally Ã¢â¬Ëwithin' and attached through an umbilical. Abortion, as defined above, is the mother's (and/or join parents') decision to terminate the life of the unborn child. Any human being willfully taking the life of another human being (or ordering their death, such as Ã¢â¬Å"hiring a hit manÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â or in the case of abortion Ã¢â¬â telling a doctor to perform an abortion) is committing a murder.Rarely do people die from giving birth. Many more die as a result of complications after an abortion. But the bottom line is that the child is innocent of any crime, so why punish it? It is a human being of intrinsic value. OneÃ¢â¬â¢s not saying it is an easy choice and can certainly sympathize with those who have had to make it. Perhaps they even made the wrong choice. But, God is a loving and forgiving God, who can even forgive murder; which
Describe in one page or less how you would select the Columbus Police patrol officers to be surveyed. The Research Project: Physical Preparedness of Columbus Police Officers in Citizen Encounters Involving Force. Target Panel: Respondents of this research should have the following qualifications: Must be between the age ofÃ 21 Ã¢â¬â 35 Must have 6 or more months field experience as a Patrol officer of Columbus Must be active in the police force Must be a resident of Columbus Must at least have one physical encounter with a citizen Sample Size: 1000 police patrol officers Methodology: This research will employ a qualitative and quantitative research wherein a representative sample of the target audience will be randomly selected to create a target panel. Through qualitative research by using an open-ended questionnaire, spontaneous or not pre-determined responses are solicited through a free willing method. Meanwhile, the answers from the qualitative research will be further dealt with in the quantitative research using a closed-ended questionnaire that will provide figures or raw data. Through these two types of research, the researcher will determine the cause of the lack of preparation of police officers during encounters with civilians. Construct a brief 5-item unstructured, open-ended questionnaire that will determine the patrol officersÃ¢â¬â¢ views as to how well they are prepared for physical encounters with citizens where lethal force is not an issue. Ã Open-ended questionnaire for Focus Group Discussion What are the risks involved in being a police officer in Columbus? If physical encounter with citizens is not cited, ask about the probability of experiencing physical encounters with citizens while on duty. What kind of trainings did you receive before you engaged in police field operations or patrol duty? Were these trainings able to help you prepare for physical encounters with citizens? Why? If not, why? As a police officer, what do you think are the factors that provoke physical encounters with citizens? Enumerate tactics or methods on how to conduct proper management of physical encounters with citizens? Explain each tactic/method. What are the causes of mismanagement of physical encounters with citizens? How should these be prevented? Construct an 8-item structured questionnaire using closed-end questions that involve multiple response choices that addresses the same issue in Question #2. Closed-ended questionnaire for Survey Questions Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree 1. Is your job as a patrol officer worth all the risks? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 2. Do you think that force is needed in enforcing the law? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 3. Are you willing to employ force when you are threatened by a civilian? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 4. Do civilians usually provoke physical encounters with law enforcers? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 5. Do you think that the use of force is effective in promoting compliance? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 6. Do you think that there is a need to have a good physical and quick-thinking build to better handle physical encounters? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 7. Do you think that by having police weapons and gadgets will help you do your job better in enforcing the law? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 8. Are you prepared physically, emotionally and psychologically to engage in a physical encounter with a civilian? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
What is Rebranding? RebrandingÃ is the creation of a new name, term, symbol, design, or combination thereof for an established brand with the intention of developing a differentiated (new) position in the mind of stakeholders and competitors. This may involve radical changes to the brand's logo, brand name, image,Ã marketing strategy, andÃ advertisingÃ themes. These changes are typically aimed at theÃ repositioning of the brand/company, sometimes in an attempt to distance itself from certain negative connotations of the previous branding, or to move the brandÃ upmarket.However, the main reason for a re-brand is to communicate a new message for a company, something that has evolved, or the Ã¢â¬Ënew board of directorsÃ¢â¬â¢ wish to communicate. Reasons for Rebranding Proactive Rebranding: Sometimes a company sees a reason to rebrand to seize an opportunity or thwart potential threats in the future. Proactive rebranding might happen in the following situations: * Predict ed Growth: When a company is preparing for expected growth, particularly international growth, it might rebrand products and services into a consolidated brand. This is often done for consistency and to save money over time.This type of rebranding is also done when a company simply needs to create a greater sense of brand unity across its business. * New Line of Business or Market: When a company enters into a new line of business or market that is not cohesive to the existing brand identity, a rebranding might be in order. * New Audience: When a company wants to appeal to a new audience, a rebranding might be necessary. Keep in mind, the rebranding might not require an actual name or logo change. * Relevancy: When a company realizes its brand is losing relevancy in consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ minds, it might be time to rebrand.The Yellow Pages rebranding is a perfect example. With the use of printed Yellow Pages directories declining, Yellow Pages rebranded to YP and began to focus more atte ntion on the digital space making it significantly more relevant. Reactive Rebranding: Companies could also rebrand in reaction to an event that is so significant that the existing brand must be changed. For example, reactive rebranding might happen in situations like the ones listed below: * Merger or Acquisition: When companies merge or acquire other companies, rebranding is often required. Legal Issues: There are a number of different legal issues that could cause a company to rebrand. Trademarks are often at the root of these rebranding examples. Hence, it is imperative to conduct an exhaustive trademark search and obtain the trademark rights to your brand name before you launch it. * Competitive Influences: Sometimes a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ activities can be the catalyst to a rebranding. When a competitor renders your brand useless or dated, a rebranding could help you regain a foothold in your market and give you the facelift you need to effectively strike back. Negative Publicity: When the image of the corporate or the brand has been tarnished by a sudden happening or more so, a crisis that has arisen, companies adopt a rebranding marketing strategy. The mistakes when while rebranding 1. Do not rely only on history: Rebranding well means staying relevant. Assumptions made when the brand was established may no longer hold true. Analyze changes in target markets when exploring opportunities for brand expansion, repositioning and revitalization.One must try and evaluate current market conditions before finalizing a rebranding exercise for the brand. However, one must ensure that the core offering is in line with the initial offering, the essence could be the differentiator. 2. Thinking the brand is the logo, stationery or corporate colors: The brand not only encompasses these elements, but also customer perception and experience to quality, the overall look and feel of the brand, customer care, retail and web environments, the tone and voice of communications, and more.One must ensure that the new image, thus to be communicated, touches upon all the aspects of the brand. 3. Navigating without a plan: Effective rebrands rely on a creative brief to keep everyone focused as the project progresses. Include sections for a situation analysis, objectives, target markets, budget and resources, timeframe, point person, known parameters, approval structure, stakeholders and metrics for assessing results. 4.Refusing to hire a branding consultant without industry experience: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s ok to consider an agency that hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t worked in your specific industry before. Sometimes it is ideal Ã¢â¬â especially if youÃ¢â¬â¢re serious about a turnaround. Smart companies recognize the value of a fresh perspective. 5. Not leveraging existing brand equity and goodwill. Dismissing brand equity when rebranding alienates established customers, while unnecessary overhauls can irreparably damage a brandÃ¢â¬â¢s perception.Consider the n eeds and mindset of the target market carefully before digging into the process. Sometimes a small evolution Ã¢â¬â or a new coat of paint Ã¢â¬â is all thatÃ¢â¬â¢s needed to rejuvenate and make a brand relevant. 6. Not trying on your customerÃ¢â¬â¢s shoes. Simply calling your own 800-number or receptionist may reveal challenges customers face and inform your rebranding strategy. Take the time to navigate your own website, buy your products and return something. Better yet, ask a friend or family member to do so and learn from their experiences
Monday, July 29, 2019
Why should anyone care about becoming an educated person - Essay Example To give the readers a better understanding about this topic, this essay will first discuss about what an education person is and is not. In relation to the importance of continuous learning, reasons as to why each student should care about becoming an educated person will be tackled in details. most of us would aim to enroll ourselves in one of the colleges or local universities before we start a career in our chosen profession. However, the problem with some of us is that not all people who go through higher education are capable of utilizing what they have learned in school (Tauginas 9). Since not all people are capable of applying what they have learned into real-life situations, it is a wrong perception that becoming an educated person is all about receiving proper education. Hamilton mentioned that Ã¢â¬Å"becoming an educated person is Ã¢â¬Ëa lifelong processÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (82). It means that becoming an educated person should never be limited on receiving high grades in school curriculum nor by being able to complete the course requirements. Although receiving high grades in class is a stepping stone for further studies, it is essential for students to be aware that an educated person is way more than being able to receive high grades in one or more subject. Becoming an educated person is also more than being able to graduate from school. Furthermore, it is not about simply having a decent job nor being able to earn money (Hamilton 84). Instead, becoming an educated person is all about our ability to embrace new learning opportunities as it comes along our way. There are a lot of benefits associated with becoming an educated person. Aside from the fact that access to proper education can make us become a better person (Lin 21), becoming an educated person will definitely make us become well-rounded. Furthermore, access to
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Business Law - Essay Example The court did not find specific performance as a legal remedy in this case for the reason that it was impossible to compel the Wentz to sell the carrots to Campbell unwillingly. In the final ruling, the court refused to help Campbell in reinforcing the case because Campbell had formulated an unconscionable contract that provided him with unreasonable privileges to control the farmers. For instance, he could dictate to whom the farmers would sell the carrots they could not buy after the harvest. To avoid instances of unconscionable contracts in the future, Campbell soup requires to exercise fairness in the contract by involving farmers during the contract formulation process (Blum, 2007). The Uniform Commercial Code Under UCC 2-302, a person who buys goods at an exaggerated price stands a better chance to exit a contract more than a person who is involved in the purchase of non-food products. The principle of fairness requires that all contracts be treated as equally binding regardles s of the participants of the contract. However, the UCC law seems to contradict this law by exercising favoritism for people with unequal bargaining power. It would be more ethical if the court upheld treated all citizens on the same platform as long as the at the signing of the contract each party is aware of the terms of the contract; They have the will to sign it or refuse to sign (Collins, 2009). In the scenario of Ace heating and Cooling Company, although Glamour and Shady restaurant are familiar with the terms of the contract, the purchase conditions are incomparable. While Glamour purchased the Freezy to protect the health of old patients, Shady restaurants bought the Freezy out of not urgency. GlamourÃ¢â¬â¢s purchased the goods to protect the rights of people who have a low bargaining power, unlike ShadyÃ¢â¬â¢s customers. Employment-at Will The employment-at-will Act allows the employer to fire an employee without any substantial reason to do so, and as they deem fit for the organization. Unless there is a contract of employment or evidence of discrimination, fired employees cannot obtain a legal protection from a court of law. While it is considerate to allow employers to fire employees at their own discretion, this rule has been applied to inflict discrimination in the labor market. For instance, ABC news reported a case where a woman was fired on the ground that she was irresistible and was a threat to marriages. When the Supreme Court ruled against the woman and justified the action of the employer, the case attracted a lot of controversy since this termination of employment was perceived as an incidence of illegal female discrimination. The fact that the court granted rehearing of the case, it can be considered as evidence of inconsistency in court decision due to a weakness in the law regarding the firing of employees (Doyle, 2013). To avoid such inconsistencies and misinterpretation of the law regarding firing, the law should not allow firin g for no reason policy. A PrincipalÃ¢â¬â¢s Responsibility for the Actions of Their Agent The action of Steve, a Big Mart employee, to check their customer, Karen, is part of the responsibility he owes to their employer. The fact that Karen did not go through the check counter raises a question and hence SteveÃ¢â¬â¢s action to scrutinize her is an act of good faith. Since Karen has no tangible evidence to show that Steve had a malicious intention, she is not justified to sue for defamation or
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Growth And Development Of Entrepreneural Ventures - Essay Example This research will begin with the statement that every business is expected to have certain codes of ethics, which define the kind of interactions that its staff is to have in the course of its business practices. The business that has certain codes of ethics often perform outstandingly in their functions, they products high-quality goods and most preferred by clients. In showing a preference for the products and services made by these businesses. Customers understand that they follow the laid down procedures and standard in executing their functions. Adherence to codes of ethics makes business organizations carry out proper social responsibility programs through which they communicate and show their commitment to the welfare of its workers, other stakeholders, and the outside community. Most businesses that do not have codes of ethics often find themselves in various breaches of the law, forcing them to engage in various lawsuits. Creditors sometimes sue the business for failing to abide by the terms and conditions of sale agreements; additionally, workers sometimes have various issues concerning contractual agreements and remuneration. Ethical issues have special legal provisions to ensure that business organizations that do not live by the law are punishable according to the laid down legal structures. Google Inc., is a multinational American corporation that specializes in offering internet-related products and services. These products include search engines, cloud computing services, online advertisements and various types of software. Most of the products that the company specializes in originated from AdWords. Since the company was incorporated, it has enjoyed consistent growth, managing to become one of the greatest companies in the world that offers internet and related services. The persistent growth has seen the company manage to establish a chain of products and services to take advantage of the ever-increasing internet needs by people worldwide, wh ich are now turning to the internet as the sources of economic livelihood.
Friday, July 26, 2019
Week 4 posts 6330 - Assignment Example I would like to thank you for the informative post regarding Basic Nursing Care Skills in the ADN course is beneficial to the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ opportunity to exercise their nursing skills effectively. I support the best practice in this quote, Ã¢â¬Å"The syllabus is well organized with effective headers and tables with the ease of readability which can promote understanding among learners (Slattery & Carlson, 2005)Ã¢â¬ . The improvement needed in this syllabus is that it requires measureable goals and clear objectives. Your critique on the syllabus for the nurse residency program at a community hospital located in Southwest Florida was quite good in that it provides nurse graduates with no experience, the acute care setting. I support the following quote, Ã¢â¬Å"If the student can achieve the objectives set forth in the course, then there us alignment with the course outcome. This syllabus is beneficial in that it helps learners set high, but achievable goals (Slattery and Carlson, 2005).Ã¢â¬ The major improvement this syllabus needs is more supervision; this is beneficial since the graduates need mentoring. The post related to the Wound Care Programme is mainly about preparing the nurse in practice many ways of management of wounds was very informative. I would like to support your view onÃ¢â¬ , one way this syllabus illustrates best practices is with very clear and concise objectives.Ã¢â¬ A listing of resources helps the students plan ahead; both the actions are good ways of learner engagement (Habanek, 2005). One way to improve this syllabus is by creating a list of meeting dates and expected assignments. This assists the learner take responsibility for their learning and anticipates the course development (Habanek, 2005). Rowles, C. (2012). Strategies to promote critical thinking and active learning, In D. Billings & J. Halstead (Eds.), Teaching in nursing: A guide for faculty (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO:
The Helmet-To-Helmet Rule - Essay Example It is seen that the new helmet-to-helmet rule works effectively in reducing the number of concussions. This is basically achieved through the measures introduced by the rule, which holds the players accountable for their actions. The defenders are thereby limited in their hard hits. Thus it is realized that the rule has reduced the head injuries that were a common occurrence in the early days before its implementation. The rule receives much support on the conventional view that it greatly mitigates the serious injuries while also punishing those who fail to observe the rules of the game. Such accountability, it is argued, is very important in bringing sanity into the game. It has been realized that the graduating students who join the National Football League (NFL) are becoming bigger and stronger yearly. In that regard, the number of injuries associated with the game is increasing. The game is also becoming more violent given these types of players. The rule is certainly very timel y considering that most of the rules that usually defined the game of football are seriously ignored. In the last few years it has been realized that that most defenders have practically shifted from the conventional methods of tackling and usually confront their opponents head fast. Such dangerous moves usually create crushing tackles. Well, football is certainly intended to be a violent game and most of the hard moves are certainly within acceptable limits (Wingate 78). Nevertheless, proponents of the helmet-to-helmet rule argue that some of the moves made by the defendants are practically unnecessary. As such, given the frequent concussions, it creates the need to control much of the game through the application of universal rules. The new helmet-to-helmet rule is therefore very appropriate and should be supported at all costs considering the important transformation it has brought into the game. One fundamental benefit of the helmet-to-helmet rule is the reduced number of head i njuries that have been associated with its implementation. In each football season, it is estimated that over 20 percent of high school players and 10 percent of college players usually sustain dangerous brain injuries each year (Carter 49). Well, such statistics are shocking and should therefore trigger a new sense of thought in that respect. The increase in the number of concussions is partly attributed to the increasing speed in the games and the defiance of the rules that guide the game. The new helmet-to-helmet rule is therefore perceived as a remedy to the cases of concussions, which usually cause long term effects on the affected people. Such effects include dementia, loss of motor skills and occasional memory loss. These are very dangerous effects that should be controlled at all costs. The imperative of this particular rule at this point in time cannot therefore be underestimated. The challenge is further compounded by the results revealed by new research and evidence which reveals much serious effects of concussions on the affected people. David Kusher in his research realized that cases of multiple concussions spanning over months or years might result into serious neuropsychological deficits. It is also realized that continuous concussions over shorter periods might translate to the second impact syndrome. In this case, a concussion obtained while a player is on recovery from a previous one might lead to a condition known as progressive cerebral edema. Three or more concussions are likely
Thursday, July 25, 2019
The Frst Genuine System of Federal Government - Essay Example From this discussion it is clear thatÃ grandfather Franklin was more reserved, though with prodding he too became excited and animated.Ã Grandfather Jefferson would call him a Deist, a man of science, and argue that he favored an elimination of religious faith from American governance rather than a mere separation of church and state.Ã This always served to start Grandfather Franklin talking.Ã He told us that religious faith was an essential part of our philosophical heritage, that while it led to oppression when abused, it also functioned as an integral aspect of our culture.Ã He told us that he favored religion, so long as it was adequately shielded from politics and from state affairs.This paper highlights thatÃ the reporter's grandfathers adhered to the same basic story of the Founding Fathers, and they themselves admired the founding philosophies.Ã They agreed that America was correct to decide that natural laws ought to govern our roles as individual citizens and that government ought to be designed to respect the individual.Ã They agreed that powerful governments were dangerous, a threat to these natural laws, and that is was necessary to implement a series of checks and balances in order for these ideals to persist.Ã They both agreed on the separation of church and state, and they both agreed that religious values nevertheless remained valuable.Ã They both sought to separate the government into separate branches.
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Foundations of Tort - Essay Example The question that most people ask is where this concept of law originated from. There are different kinds of wrongs that people do and their special categorization relates to different modes of judgments and repercussions. One of the kinds of wrongs that are common and need people to be much aware of are torts. In legal terms, torts can be said to unlawful acts or wrongs that are given recognition by law as those standing for a lawsuit. Whenever these wrongs are committed, they result in a form of harm or injury that constitutes full ground for seeking compensation by the party that has suffered the harm. There are some torts which when committed, are categorized as criminal offences and actually call for full imprisonment or stricter approaches. However, the main aim of tort is to ensure that full compensation is done for the damages caused to the victim while at the same time, preventing cases of similar wrongs in future. The person that has suffered harm usually has two alternative approaches whenever he is faced by the situation. First, he may sue the person who caused the harm or inflicted damage to him or on the other hand, he may stop the extension of the tortuous conduct in exchange for monetary benefits. in either of the two ways, the courts have no objection as long as the matter I brought to finality in a amicable manner and the aggrieved party gets due justice satisfactoriy. Among some of the compensation that an affected stands to get in a case of tort include; the loss of capacity to earn, pain and suffering, reasonable and maximum medical expenses. These losses include both present and future expectation, a wrongful act may be committed, out of which the offender may be required to make compensation that may go a long way. The duration for provision of compensation depends on the kind of harm that was inflicted and the magnitude of the damage itself. All this things have to be analysed in a court of law and due judgment passed by
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Values of Gender Equality by the United States Government - Essay Example When a state commits to the conventions of CEDAW, there are certain measures which are expected to be taken by them to ensure that they will prevent any form of gender inequality. The measures include incorporation of laws that will ensure the equality of men and women in the general society. In particular, it ensures protection to women against any discriminatory acts or acts of violence, and the assurance that the state will prevent any discrimination that may be directed towards women in public, at home, or at work. The significance of this contention lies in the fact that it strives to realize gender equality. Importantly, the convention provides states with a useful framework for legislative policies that will prevent all forms of discrimination, setting clear standards of gender equality. Using that framework, states can bring in appropriate laws and legislation to ensure that women get equal opportunities in every field, including politics, health, education, employment, and t he right to vote. The states that commit to the convention will take appropriate legislative measures and make certain temporary and special amendments to make sure that women will enjoy their full freedom and equal rights in every discipline (Wrigley). CEDAW is perhaps the only treaty, which recognizes that most gender biases are an outcome of the traditional and cultural influences on society. Countries that agree to be a part of the convention require submitting reports every few years to show progress in the subject of discrimination against women.
Monday, July 22, 2019
American Experience in Huck Finn Essay Ã¢â¬Å"All modern American Literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn.. Ã¢â¬ claimed Ernest Hemingway, a American author and journalist. This quote represents the idea and perception of Huckleberry Finn as a defining moment in American Literature, a time when a new culture was being formed west of the Atlantic that had many different subjects and characteristics than that of the literature in Europe. What makes The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn so original and such a representation of America is that whatever Huckleberry Finn, the character, is about or can be defined by, is what America was all about. Through this complex character, Mark Twain was able to create a new American experience and show the reader all about it. The main characteristics of the American experience that Mark Twain represented through this character included a social commentary on the southern culture and its response to slavery and its general antebellum culture, the nature that defines America and how America defines its nature and the freedom from it, and the new anti-materialistic hero. The opening of the book deals with the most serious issue depicted; the idea of slavery and the response of the southerners to its injustices. The majority of the American experience of slavery and its response are shown through the relationship between the main protagonist, Huck and his friend Jim. When Jim first approaches Huck to tell him that he has run away from his master Huck replies, Ã¢â¬Å"People would call me a low down Abolitionist and despise me for keeping mum- but that donÃ¢â¬â¢t make no difference. I ainÃ¢â¬â¢t agoing to tell.. Ã¢â¬ (1379). In a time when it was illegal to aide slaves in their escape, Huck was just beginning to start his moral dilemma of his loyalties to the law, and his friendship with Jim. This brings about a side note on the American experience of slavery that is not as developed as the response to slavery in Huck and that is: how does a person act and feel in a society in which they have friends that can become slaves. In many Abolitionist books and essays at the time, the reader was directed to feel for the slave as a man, as a brother. They used emotions to show the hardships of the slaves and play upon the guilt of the white American to end slavery. In Huckleberry Finn, Twain asked the reader to determine how they would act on slavery when they saw their friends under servitude. This was a large issue because it brings out personal alliances with cultural alliances of the south. However, the main American experience Twain is trying to develop on slavery is not the personal relationship and whether or not slavery was a terrible issue, it was the southerners response to slavery. This is exemplified by two separate cases. The first is with slavery and Jim, and the second is with HuckÃ¢â¬â¢s abusive and drunken father who would Ã¢â¬Å"lay drunk with the hogs in the tanyardÃ¢â¬ (1359). Both of these issues were just symbols of the southern distorted culture of the time. A culture that could enslave a man, calls themselves good Christian men, and then falls asleep drunk. What is peculiar about this novel is not necessarily TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings regarding the morality of this culture. It is fairly obvious that he disapproves of such and shows that it is a morally defunct society, but rather what makes this novel truly representative of the American experience is showing how even someone who is not morally corrupted acts upon it. Huck, who is shown through his helping of Jim and his friendship with Jim, clearly understands the injustice of slavery and the immoral acts his father does. What does he do about it though? Does he seek to transform this southern society through work or a mini-revolution? No, he just simply moves along. This is the central irony of the book, and thus represented of one of the ironies of the American experience in the 19th century. Huck Finn chooses to leave intact this society that is clearly in need of change, and just simply leaves the place behind. It shows that he is against slavery and the ideals of the south and thus wonÃ¢â¬â¢t live in it, but he also wonÃ¢â¬â¢t change it. This was one of the most prominent experiences of America in the 19th century. Many whites disagreed with slavery, but if it did not affect their lives, as they were not necessarily the culprit or the victim, they just went on living their lives. The most common feature of this novel is movement. While this was crucial in developing the irony that was the southern response to slavery, it is also important in itself. In this novel, the main characters are always going somewhere, leaving a place in which they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like or had a bad experience, and moving on to the next. This sense of freedom from nature was feature that is distinctly American. In the novel, the river was aÃ central metaphor as it brought them food, their raft, but also gave them a means of transportation. The American experience of traveling for the sake of traveling and expanding yourself in nature is shown from their experiences with movement in the river. Huck Finn was a character who is always in motion, always free. This was seen by the fact that he did start out the trip trying to provide freedom for Jim up the river, but when they passed Cairo he did not stop. In fact, the new route would take them to New Orleans, a slave-trading capital of the south at the time (Johnson). The freedom that nature provided Huck was seen by his depiction of the nights on the raft as Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s lovely to live on a raft. We had the sky, up there, all speckled with stars.. Ã¢â¬ (1423). This freedom brings a release from the world of land, the towns where people were entrapped in a cycle of guns, alcohol, and racism. He does not see in moral meaning in nature like the transcendentalists of the time, rather it was an escape of the modern world, a place to have pleasant feelings. This freedom is an American experience. In just a purely physical sense, America has the opportunities for freedom. Vast lands, ample rivers, defined seasons all allow the American to seek freedom from society. This is something that was not seen in Europe as you were subjected to just your own countryÃ¢â¬â¢s land through language, cultural, and physical barriers. This idea of jumping on a raft and finding your freedom, both spiritually as in the case of Huck and physically in the case of Jim, is something that represents a true American experience. This myth of the open frontier continued in writing for decades to come, a myth that would allow the individual American to escape the rapidly growing urban centers that were developing an uneducated middle-class. The last particularly American subject is the hero of the novel himself, Huck. Huck is envisioned as this romantic anti-society anti-inheritance hero. In coming-to-age novels of the time, many were determined to show the process the character mature, moving past their youthful selves and into a role of social acceptance of culture. Huck represents a new American subject, on who speaks as he wishes, and does as he wants. Because of his traveling lifestyle, Huck does not concern himself with inheritance or money for any matter. What mattered most for Huck in the story was the materials that made the journey possible. He was not concerned with his social class, his need for a life with a wife, kids, and money. This metaphor represents the American Anti-materialistic culture that was forming, and thus Twain depicted it as such in his story. The sense of anti-conformity culture was the subject, a view that was depicted primarily by Huck. To combat the idea that Huck was just a child, and this is how he was supposed to act, Twain introduces two characters. The Duke and Dauphin, con-artists who swindle people out of their money by performing productions represent the free nature, the anti-materialistic culture that Huck represents. While these two do act in order to obtain money, the goal of the money is not to obtain a higher social order, but to carry on in life. It supplies their thirst for fun. This was seen when after a heist, the Duke asks to count the money so that they can Ã¢â¬Å"take and give it to the girlsÃ¢â¬ (1451). This shows that they went about their plan yes for the money, but the money was not an object that they desired; it is what it can be immediately used for that defines it. This was against the European experience of inheritance and the desire to better oneself in a Victorian fashion, and represented an American subject. Huck finds out throughout the story and the encounters with the people in the towns, how to live in order to escape the social conformity, thus creating his own identity. This idea of putting your obligations to you self-creation and fun, and not to the creation of a self that is defined by community or cultural standards was an effective approach to an American subject. In an extended metaphor, Huck Finn and his friends and acquaintances represent an American subject. Their reactions to slavery represent the blind eye and unwillingness to put about change in the southern culture of slavery and racism, a subject that would arguably represent the south to this day. At the same time, the river which took them away from their culture as opposed to fighting it, also represents the freedom of America, a subject Twain makes sure he repeats throughout the novel. Lastly, the characters themselves represent a new age of anti-materialism, a staunch contrast to the European idea of self-betterment for the sake of culture and standing. In all, these metaphors all show a new American subject. Cited: Twain, Mark. Ã¢â¬Å" The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Ã¢â¬ The Harper Single Volume American Literature. Ed. McQuade et al. New York: Longman. 1999. 1355-1522 Walter Johnson, Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999, p. 2 and 6.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Entrepreneurship And Innovation Assignment Business Essay Being in the competitive environment, innovation and entrepreneurial leader are essential for an organisation for its survival and success. The definitions of entrepreneurship, innovation and the way in which they are applied in Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) is briefed in this assignment. The SME operates in textile industry and the name of the organisation is Sri Vishnu Perumaal Spin Yarn Ltd, a family business run by founder and his a son (Managing Director) in Coimbatore, South India. The growth of the Indian textile industry is limited because of the Chinese entrants. In spite of this limitation, Indian entrepreneurs who operate their business in this industry are continuously changing their production process to compete with the Chinese competitors. The growth and development of the Indian SMEs is also discussed. The process of generating ideas, selecting one among the available ideas and implementing them are explained. Timmons model of individual entrepreneurship is used to explain the entrepreneurial behaviour of the founder and way in which he managed the innovation. The opportunity found leads to a incremental change in the production process of the firm. As succession is widely seen in Indian family business, the process of succession and the characteristics required by the successor to make the succession successful are explained in detail. Some the characteristics, that a successor should posses are intellectual knowledge, personal motivation and commitm ent towards the firm are discussed. Apart from this factors which facilitates the entrepreneurship within the firm are highlighted. These factors are knowledge management, organisational culture, individual resources, size of the firm, internal and external networking. Employing a non family member in the senior management and changing the issue raising culture are recommended by the author. This could take the company to higher levels and increase the responsibility of all the employees working the organisation. Production process is explained in Appendix A and Appendix B consists the organisational structure. This assignment will take you through the all the above mentioned. Contents 1. Introduction 3 2. Individual Entrepreneurship in Sri Vishnu Perumaal Spin Yarn Ltd 6 1.1Managing Innovations 7 1.1.1Generating Ideas 7 1.1.2Selecting An Idea 8 1.1.3Implementing The New Idea 8 3. Timmons Model Of Individual Entrepreneurship 9 1.2Opportunity 9 1.3 Resources 10 1.4 Team 10 4. Sri Vishnu Perumaal Spin Yarn Ltd A Family Business 11 5. Factors Facilitating Entrepreneurship In The Organisation 12 1.5Knowledge Management 12 1.6Individual Resources and Size Of The Firm 13 1.7Organisation culture 13 1.8Internal and External Networking 13 6. Recommendation 14 7. References 14 8. Appendix 15 Introduction Entrepreneurship is nothing but the way of thinking, reasoning and acting which is highly influenced by opportunities, leadership balanced for value creation and a holistic approach. Entrepreneurship is a human act which results in creation, enhancement, renewal and realisation of values. In todays competitive world entrepreneurship has evolved beyond the classic start-up notion, which includes companies of all types from micro to corporate level in all stages. Thus entrepreneurship can be seen in slow and fast growing, old and new, small and large, in private, non profit organisation and in public sectors as well (Timmons A., 2009, p.101). The individuals who possess the skills of entrepreneurship are Entrepreneurs, they build/create values from nothing . It also requires vision, passion and commitment which motivates other team members to work towards the vision. And involves calculated risks taken by the entrepreneur to achieve their goal (Timmons A., 1990, p.37). Entrepreneurs ar e moulded with combined innovative and management skills. They also have control over the entrepreneurial management process with in their organisation. Entrepreneurial management mainly emphasises on collecting ideas, aligning them, finding the correct opportunities, implementing them by marshalling their resources (employees and technology) and reviewing the outcomes of the same. As said by Schumpeter, innovation is introducing new products or improving the quality of the already existing products; finding new markets, new methods of production or distribution; or new sources for producing already existing products; or introducing new forms of economic organisations (Schumpeter J. A., 1942) (This is available in lecture slides of Catherine Gurling). Author of this report worked for Sri Vishnu Perumaal Spin Yarn Ltd, a spinning mill in Coimbatore, South India. Approximately 190 individuals are employed in the company at present, has an average turnover of Rs 30.1 million per annum and operates in textile industry. Hence the company is categorised as Small and Medium size Enterprise (SME) (Bridge S 2003, p.182). The product of the firm is Yarn, which is produced from natural/artificial (man-made) fibre. The natural/artificial fibre (raw material) is sourced from the local and national market depending on their availability. The raw materials used in manufacturing process are cotton, rayon, acrylic and polyester. The products are delivered as per the customer requirements. The company mostly manufactures cotton and polyester yarn for stitching and weaving purpose in garment production. In recent years, the capacity of the firm has increased rapidly. However it manufactures fewer quantity of product, when compared to its capacity. This is due to the influence of high productivity in similar type of products from Chinese manufacturers in the International market, the degree of producing various products has been limited to the Indian manufactures. According to the report from Office of the Textile Commissioner, the total demand for cotton yarn would be 3.46 MT million for the year 2010/11 in which 2.65 MT million would be for domestic demand and the remaining 720,000 MT for export purposes (Dr Ramkumar S, 2010). The quantity for export purpose has remained the same for recent years, because of the above mentioned reason. Being an SME, the founder of the firm significantly stresses on continuous improvement in manufacturing process and good quality product. Thus most of the Indian manufacturers in the SME segment of textile industry concentrate in the production proce ss and they are finding all possible ways to reduce the production costs, wastes and improve the quality of product. Since its founding in 1989, the company is profoundly influenced by the spirit and values of its founder, chairman Srinivasan Perumaal. The business is run by the founder and his family member, its a family business. He emphasised more on production methods to be ahead above the market and customer expectations. This increased the number of customers and contracts for manufacturing good quality product in recent years. Figure 1A and Figure 1B is the diagrammatic representation of SMEs growth, development and employment in the past five years of Indian economy. The report clearly state that the number of MSMEs has increased to great extent and has also generated employment (Anon, 2010). Figure 1A: Growth of MSMEs in India Sourced from Ministry of MSME Annual Report 2009/10. Figure 1B: Employment in MSMEs in India Sourced from Ministry of MSME Annual Report 2009/10. Individual Entrepreneurship in Sri Vishnu Perumaal Spin Yarn Ltd At the heart of the individual entrepreneurship is innovation and the risk involved in implementing the idea. Organisms survive and grow by generating variations, selecting a new element in the variations, adapting the new element in their environment and spreading it among their species. The organisms which do this right survives, whilst those which do not do this properly disappears. Similarly in the case of the spinning mill, the founder search and generate the ideas for production process, with the help of his employees. They collectively bring all the ideas together and a variety of choices are available to select. Among the various options available, the senior management chose a particular feasible idea and implement the same by calculating the risk involved in it. This process of deciding a particular idea results in the survival of the company in future . Survival of the fittest in short(Bessant J, 2007, p.10). The production process is briefly explained in Appendix A. As said earlier, company concentrated more in process innovation which increases the production performance on the whole when implemented. The idea of installing conveyors for material handling within the company was found to be an incremental innovation in the production process (Bessant J, 2001). Figure 2 shows the diagrammatic representation for dimensions of innovation. Figure 2: Dimensions Of Innovation (Bessant J, 2001). From the figure it is clear that the perceived extent of change is incremental over a period and the production process is changed/altered with respect to the opportunity found. This would gradually increase the performance and helps in bench marking the production process and product quality. Managing Innovations Generating Ideas The senior management found that there was a problem in transporting the unfinished goods from one machine to another machine for further processing, in other words issue raised in the material handling within the production process. Founder, chairman who always insisted in improving production process, initiated a survey within the firm to find the best idea. He trusted that the employees within the firm and the other people from outside firm in the same industry would contribute towards finding new ideas. All the employees did participated in the survey conducted within the firm. The survey had questionnaire which could help them communicate their concerns to higher management in the firm. It also had a column to suggest ideas, to solve the issue/concern they mentioned in the survey. Many ideas were suggested by the employees who worked in the production department of the firm. Selecting An Idea In order to choose a particular idea from the suggested or giving out a new idea, announcement was made in the company. The middle managers are the people who communicate with the customers and responsible for updating the company with the latest news in the market. They also came up with an idea of conducting survey within the organisation, to solve the identified issue. They took forward this to many who were out in the market. Finally the middle management came up three ideas from their interaction by networking inside (survey) and outside the company, they were increasing the number of employees for material handling, installing a automatic conveyor (transporter machine) which moves with the help of conveyor belts and the last idea is to slowdown the production, so that the employees will be able to transport the sliver cans from one machine to another easily. These sliver cans contains unfinished goods from carding process and then moved towards drawing process. Implementing The New Idea On discussing the options with the managing director and middle managers and calculating the risks involved in it, the senior management decided to install the automatic conveyor in four carding and drawing machines and compare its performance with the similar type and same number of machines which uses manual transportation. This trail method was insisted by considering the costs and risks involved in installing the conveyor machine. If the idea chosen reflects higher performance than the manual, then implementing the idea in all the carding and drawing machines was considered by the senior management (founder). Innovations happen with a defined structure and a number of influences. The aerial view of the founder towards what happens inside the firm and how it should be managed, helped him to build a Spaghetti Model of Innovation (Bessant J, 2007, p.83), through the conducted survey. This survey influenced the employees from different departments and levels to interact and share the ideas about the existing production process and performance. Timmons Model Of Individual Entrepreneurship The firm operates in family business, however the deciding authority for any changes lies with the founder, chairman of the firm. Thus Timmons model of individual entrepreneurship is considered in this assignment. This model is the place where theory and practise collides in the real world. According to Timmons forces such as Opportunity, Resources and Team plays a major role in entrepreneurial process. Among these forces, Opportunity is at the heart of the process, followed by Resources and Team (Timmons A., 2009, p.109). Figure 3 shows the diagrammatic representation of Timmons Model. Figure 3: Timmons Model Of Individual Entrepreneurship Jeffry A. Timmons and Stephen Spinelli, Jr (2009). Opportunity Through communicating with other people in the industry and survey conducted within the firm. The idea of installing automatic conveyors to move sliver cans, which works with help of conveyor belts was found to be an opportunity to increase the productivity performance by 8% to 11%. The company was the first to install conveyors in Coimbatore. Various factors such as customer demand versus companys supply, break even time, growth of the company, production rate during and after the installation were considered for implementing the idea. The idea was finally decided for implementation, when it satisfied the above mentioned criteria. The final decision was made by the founder of the organisation. Resources The main resources considered for implementing idea were co-operation of employees for increasing the productivity in other machines during the installation process to equate the customer demand, availability of the conveyors in market, financial resources. The company insisted its employees to learn the mechanism of the conveyor transporter, which would help them to understand its operational functionality. Among these above mentioned resources, financial resources was least considered, as the company approached the Yarn Spinners Association (Government Organisation) for subsidy. Being the first company in Coimbatore to install conveyors, the company was funded by the Yarn Spinners Association to implement the idea. Thus the founder marshalled all the resources towards implementing the identified opportunity. Team A six member team was formed by the founder to work on the installation of the conveyor machine. The team had three employees from production department which included the production manager and the rest three were from administration and marketing department. Roles of the team members were assigned by the senior management, founder. Team had members from various departments for the following reasons, The tasks of the three employees from production department were to learn the functionality of the machine which is to be installed, report about the production rate in both manual and automated transportation of sliver cans and to maintain the same production rate as earlier during the installation process. The role of the employee from administration department was to help the other members in the team financially and communicate the reports generated and issues raised to the senior management. These reports, issues were generated and raised by the other members in the team. Two members from marketing department were looking into customer demands, forecasting the demand and insisted in timely delivery of the product to the customers during the installation process. The organisational structure is given in Appendix B. Rounding out the three forces through finding the opportunity, marshalling the resources and choosing a correct team, the founder of the company made the best fit and balance among these forces. He also created a sustainable base through converting the opportunity to a business, this was possible because of the following traits of the founder, Understanding the opportunity and economics of business through customer and market trends. Communicating vision and goals effectively, motivating for creativity and leading the employees in the right direction. Dynamic capability of fixing, shaping, moulding and making it happen. Also by understanding social awareness which includes various factors such as energy conservation, pollution and global warming. Sri Vishnu Perumaal Spin Yarn Ltd A Family Business Small and family business firms plays a major role in economic development and wealth (Bracci,Ã E.,Ã andÃ E.Ã Vagnoni.,Ã 2011, p.7). Sri Vishnu Perumaal Spin Yarn Ltd is categorised as family business firm, as it is actively managed by Srinivasan Perumaal, the founder (with decision making authority) and his son Vishnu Perumaal, the managing director (managing the operations) of the firm. It is said that the entrepreneurs who run their family business not only concentrate on the survival of the firm, more over the business should nurture the future generation of the family. Succession is commonly seen in Indian family business. It is clear from a survey conducted few years ago, that the success of family business depends on the five unique resources such as human capital, social capital, patient financial capital, survivability capital and lower cost of governance. When all these resources are directed in the correct direction, it would eventually lead to a successful famil y business (Anon, 2011). Family businesses in India are still in existence because of the reason, that the younger generation dont have inheritance taxes unlike in US (Anon Mint, 2010). It is known that the head of the family plays a major role in development of bonding among the family members, similarly the founder of a family business plays a major role in developing the culture, values and performance of the organisation. Succession is one of the critical process in a family business which takes time, needs good planning and managing to be successful. Intellectual capital such as tacit knowledge, work-related knowledge, work-related competencies, owner-managerial spirit, culture, values and others are considered to be most important factor during succession process, which should be transferred to successor. Founder being the centre of the firms network and source of knowledge, must ensure that all the above mentioned intellectual capital are transferred to the successor before the succession. The successor is the person who represents the source of knowledge and the recipient of the knowledge transfer process and posses basic knowledge about the business through formal education and training. They should have characteristics such as, responsibilities, personal motivation and commitment towards the firm. Mutual understanding and relationship between successor and predecessor is the basis of the successful process. Vishnu Perumaal, managing director of the firm would be the successor of the founder of the firm in future. He has good relationship with his father, the founder of the firm and working with the firm for than eight years. Thus by having the work experience, interaction with the employees, business knowledge and the above mentioned intellectual capital characteristics of a successor. It is believed that he would be a good successor after the succession process. After all, succession in the small family business is all about understanding the creation and development of values (Bracci,Ã E.,Ã andÃ E.Ã Vagnoni.,Ã 2011, p.7). Factors Facilitating Entrepreneurship In The Organisation There are many factors such as knowledge management, individual resources, internal and external communication networks, organisational culture and size of the organisation that facilitates the entrepreneurship. They are briefed below, Knowledge Management The acquisition of knowledge involved both internal and external environment scanning. Ideas were identified as opportunity after searching, filtering and evaluating its potential in long run (Bessant J, 2007, p.186). Scanning the internal environment of the organisation was given high priority than the external by the founder of the firm. This influenced the knowledge flow from bottom to top and the vice-versa. Because of the belief that, the individual who works closely in a particular process would know its functioning, dos and donts, pro and cons of the process. More over the company maintained a database for the ideas which are generated within the company, with the help of which an idea can be retrieved and reviewed at any point of time. The company had a policy of external networking at different levels with others in the industry, this helped to categorise the type of idea/knowledge they received from outside. Founder emphasised more on learning through mistakes. This was mai nly due to reason that a employee when makes a mistake and learns through it, will never do the same again and he/she will also communicate the learning to team and other employees in the firm. Individual Resources and Size Of The Firm The individuals in the firm had responsibilities, personal motivation and sufficient knowledge about the process in which they work. Founder interacted with the employees in the firm on daily basis, this was possible because of the size of the firm. Employees had both professional and personal relationship with the other members of their team. The company has 190 employees at present. There are 16 teams in production and packing department with 16 supervisors and seven to nine team members in each team. The firm had a maximum of ten members in a team, to have smooth control over the team. Organisation culture The firm had defined set of rules to be followed within the organisation. They were, employees can report any kind of issues to the senior management through the point of contact or supervisors with whom they work. However, the founder organised meetings with different departments in weekly basis, which helped the employees to convey their views and share ideas about the organisation and its functioning. Strategy of the firm was communicated effectively to employees in all the meetings. These meeting helped the founder to keep track of the employees attitude, behaviour towards the organisation and also the culture inside the firm. Internal and External Networking It is believed that communication among the individual plays a vital role in success of the firm. Reassigning the tasks and realigning the teams were done within the production and packing department, to build a strong network among employees. Employees also had the capability of adapting them in the new team or to work for the newly assigned task, through willingness to learn from others. Being a small firm, the employees were aware of the individuals who work in different departments and teams. The employees from senior to lower level of the firm interacted with outsiders equivalent to their level. All the above mentioned were controlled, directed towards sustainability and growth by the founder. Founder serves as the driving force towards business success, with leadership behaviour, intellectual knowledge and governing skills. On installing the conveyors, the company found that the production rate has increased by 9%. Hence the trial worked well, founder decided to implement in all the machines. Recommendation Indian industry has been dominated by family businesses traditionally. Businesses operating in the growing Indian economy should have non-family member in the senior management level. This person could share different perspectives and ideas about the business and market in which it is operating. The younger are more energetic and involved in the family business. In todays competitive world all the products are globalised and firms wishes to be in the global market (Anon Mint, 2010), hence it is recommended to have another managing director in the senior management level for this company, which would eventually strengthen the strategy of the firm, increase the momentum, bring more opportunities and success to the business. This would also take the business globally in future. More over the culture of reporting the issues to the senior management, instead of reporting to point of contacts/supervisors and middle managers is recommended. This could bring increase the responsibilities of the employees. References Jeffry A. Timmons and Stephen Spinelli, Jr., (2009), New Venture Creation Entrepreneurship for 21st Century, 8th ed, New York, Mc Graw Hill. Jeffry A. Timmons, (1990), New venture creation: Entrepreneurship in the 1990s, 3rd ed, Homewood, IL, Irwin. John Bessant and Joe Tidd, (2007), Innovation and Entrepreneurship, England, John Wiley. Simon Bridge, Ken ONeill and Stan Cromie, (2003), Understanding Enterprise, Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 2nd ed, England, Palgrave Macmillan. Dr. Seshadri Ramkumar, (2010), India Caps Cotton Yarn Exports at Highest Limit In Three Years, Available at , [Accessed on March 20, 2011]. Anon, (2010), MSME Annual Report 2009/2010, Available at , [Accessed on March 20, 2011]. Anon, (2011), Family Business, Available at , [ Accessed on March 21, 2011]. John Bessant, Joe Tidd and Keith Pavitt (2001), Managing Innovation :Integrating Technological, Market and Organisational Change, England, John Wiley. Bracci,Ã E.,Ã andÃ E.Ã Vagnoni.,Ã (2011).Ã Understanding Small Family Business Succession in a Knowledge Management Perspective.Ã IUP Journal of Knowledge ManagementÃ 9,Ã no.Ã 1,Ã (JanuaryÃ 1):Ã 7-36.Ã Available at Ã [Accessed March 22, 2011]. Anon Mint, (2010), Family businesses tend to get insular.Ã Ã Mint,Ã SeptemberÃ 17,Ã Available at Ã [Accessed March 22, 2011]. Schumpeter J. A.,(1942), Unpublished session slides from Catherine Gurling.
Working Across Boundaries: Advantages and Disadvantages This paper examines the perspective of working across boundaries from the lens of Hunan Resource Management. The paper is split into four main parts. The Introduction which provides the background to working across boundaries as it applies in HRM today. A definition section that examines the different aspects of working across boundaries i.e. social, physical, knowledge and mental. Further examination of some theoretical perspectives including the work of Heracleous. The reason that modern organisations need to work across boundaries together with consideration of strategy and leveraging capabilities. A section that looks at the advantages and disadvantages of working across boundaries with a focus on the public sector including healthcare organisations and local authorities. The conclusions summarise the key points. DEFINING WORKING ACROSS BOUNDARIES During the last decade, the concept of working across boundaries has become a popular concept. The basic premise is that individuals and organisation need to traverse boundaries if they are to achieve their goals. Essentially earlier concepts of fixed organisational demarcation lines no longer apply in modern day business concepts. Within the organisational framework the concept of boundaries can become a reasonably complex issue. There still remains an active debate as to whether the definitions of boundaries are realistic, objective or imagined. The concept has become more complex with the use of outsourcing and Public/Private partnerships in terms of lines of demarcation and authority. (Bishop, 2003) The concept of boundaries within organisations takes on different shapes and forms. Much of this has to do with social and knowledge boundaries. The explosion in technological and communication advances has simplified the concept of working across boundaries. Despite the fact that organizations still are challenged to collaborate and share information, nevertheless individuals seem much more liberated in this regard with advancement in social media. Russ Linden is one author who has investigated this, with particular focus on Public sector organisations. (Linden, 2003). The old fashioned concept of organizational design was the creation of silos or departments where functions, roles and responsibilities would be clearly defined within the context of a hierarchical matrix. For example Sales, Finance, Production would each be self-contained units within the organisation and clearly defined lines of demarcation within the business. The Heads of these Departments would be Senior Managers and expected to collaborate with one another but not trespass into the other domains. The holistic business strategy relied upon each unit to fulfil its role within the overall strategic plan. As organisations involved in size and complexity this model posed serious shortcomings and new thought processes were required. This required improved leadership thinking and more collaboration across boundaries. (Stevens, 2006). Working across boundaries remains an important part of Public Sector relationships and impose significant challenges to business operations but they create distinctive value sets and improved goals in the business relationships (Sullivan, 2007) Concepts of working across boundaries In management terms boundaries are often classified as lines of demarcation that often impose constraints. Those items that determine managerial effectiveness. For example: how a business works within the confines of a specific environment; the concept of specific leadership styles and the influence on organizational behaviour. It was HeracleousÃ Ã who pointed out in 2004 that both organisations and the environments they function in are inter-related. They create structures and social orders that assist in the definition of the business and its purpose. (Heracleous, 2008) Understanding social boundaries This essentially relates to the relationships that are formed between groups of individuals within an organization. Heracleous maintained that boundaries have remained central to the thinking of social scientists in the establishment of social boundaries between groups and individuals. Particular reference made to that of transactions costs and how modern technology like sophisticated communications and the internet have had a profound impact here. It has directed whether the boundaries have either diminished or enlarged and the effect on production costs has influenced important decisions like that of outsourcing or internalisation of specific tasks. (Heracleous, 2004). Understanding social change can be studied by the adoption of Lewins Forecefield Analysis. There are numerous models that you can adopt to examine the impact of Change to the Organization. One common method approach is that of Lewins Forecefield Analysis. Fig 1 provides an example of the model. Figure Force field Analysis exampleThis enables you to examine both the driving and restraining forces that emerge as a result of the proposed changes. The model is particularly good for identifying forces that are considered to be polarized i.e. a change in one condition creates an equal and opposite effect in the other. The model was designed by Lewin to assist the Process Analyst to guide people through the unfreeze, move and refreeze stages of business process analysis. It is also an excellent means of demonstrating the dynamics that are in play. So by completion of the Force field Model you have acquired the data in order to complete Lewins Three Step Model. In the Unfreeze you examine the status quo and those driving forces for change. You can decrease the resisting forces against change. The move element involves taking actions and moving people. The freeze means make the changes permanent and establish new ways of doing things. Introduce concept of rewards for achieving the d esired outcomes. Understanding knowledge boundaries The sharing of knowledge has both an internal and external boundary. For example in the internal model it is desirous for information to be shared between the Sales and Marketing departments. This empowers both department to do a better job. Externally, there is the sharing and collaboration of knowledge and information between allies. For example a UK based company and its overseas subsidiary. In order for an organization to be successful it must manage its four pillars of knowledge. These being Leadership, Organization, Technology and Learning. Information Technology (Pillar 3) has achieved an amazing impact in the promotion and dissemination of knowledge in the business environment. Unfortunately Technology has had a greater influence on guiding the strategic planning of organizations, as opposed to the other way round. One example being that of Enterprise Planning Systems like SAP and J.D. Edwards One World system. Organizations have re-engineered their knowledge base and business processes in order to meet the integrated demands of the software application. (Bixler, 2002) Knowledge Managers need to understand that despite the many advantages Information Technology (IT) has to offer the workplace it is not a magic utopian panacea. Equally any Information Technology application that undervalues Knowledge Management will equally fail in the business place. (Mohammed). If Knowledge Management is to be considered effective with IT in business it must be treated as its equal partner. Knowledge Managers have criticised IT as being lacking in areas like tacit knowledge. Hence there is a need to incorporate items of behavioural consideration and cognitive function. (Bixler, 2002) There is an increasing demand and challenge being placed upon the CIOs of business organizations and as such Managers need to become more vocal about their expectations and use the four pillars as a framework in order to further improve the integration of knowledge in the organization. Understanding physical boundaries The concepts of boundaries are important because it is these that represent challenges which organisations must overcome. Although organisations are essentially construed as open systems and these providing a continued interface with their environment. Many academics still believe that it is management that defines the physical boundaries and how you differentiate between internal and external items. (Schnieder, 1987). In reality it is difficult for management to define these boundaries as organisations have multiple stakeholders; such only by the integration of the combined needs can you truly obtain an understanding of the organisational identity. AS such those members of the organisation are of a precarious nature and there are many different ways in which they may be depicted as being inside or outside of the organisational composition. (Lane, 2000). Understanding Mental boundaries Mental boundaries essentially relate to individual perception of what is considered to be internal or external to the organisation. This being what is considered to be acceptable and that which goes beyond this to the realm of external control. It is this form of cognitive schema that helps individuals to create and understand the different social boundaries within an organisation. These differentiations often create perceptions of attitudes related to us and them and the formation of symbolic boundaries that enable distinctions to be drawn. (Heracleous, 2004). The need to work across boundaries Essentially the need to work across boundaries relates to that of collaboration with other entities in order to help the development and growth of the organisation. This may range from that of strategic business alliances, creation of partnership arrangements, developing business networks and other forms of collaboration and communication in order to benefit the business. Further, the concept of business transformation and organisational change can promote the need to work across boundaries. Hence regardless of the barriers created, being real or imaginary, we are almost compelled to work across them. Advantages and Disadvantages of working across boundaries Advantages of working across boundaries There are numerous advantages to working across boundaries, particularly within the Public Sector environment. Briefly, these may be enumerated as follows: Increase in working collaboration Integration of partnerships with the Private Sector Reduction of costs and process improvements Expanding networks and building knowledge Response to complex public policies Leveraging strategy and operational capabilities Aligning organisations and cultures Improvement of leadership capabilities balancing risk and reward (Blackman, 2010). Increase in working collaboration Historically the concept of collaborative working was rarely recognised as having any strategic importance. Silos were created in both Public and Private sector organisations and many of these departments functioned self-autonomously. In modern day context this has all changed and it is recognised that collaborative working both inter and intra the organization has significant benefits. In particular the organisation is better equipped for: Dealing with business transformation and change Ability to provide better service levels and customer support Optimization of resources and cost reduction strategies Ability to innovate and create by improved knowledge acquisition Easier to transition to new change requirements Increased flexibility and ability to share successes and failures The concept of collaboration is an enabling function that allows you to bring people together with different views and opinions. This concept of diversity enriches the decision making process and improve the dynamics in business working relationships. This has been successfully introduced in the Health Sector in Wales. Here different local authorities were required to formulate med-long term strategic plans. Direct collaboration between the authorities enabled the sharing of knowledge and ideas which facilitated rationalization and a more improved overarching holistic result. (Sullivan, 2007). Another example of collaboration is the ability to bring key stakeholders together in a collaborative environment. This has been effective in both local and central government projects. Bringing the stakeholders together creates greater synergy and improved policy implementation with the organisational setting. Collaboration has extended into areas of joint policy making, as opposed to just sharing information. Geoff Delamare from Surrey County Council states there are some distinct learning points from collaborative working i.e. Creating the level of trust between partners, ensuring transparency in communications and sharing knowledge; admitting mistakes, creating a collaborative environment and not imposing a ruling regime. (McCann, 2012). Integration of partnerships with the private sector Partnership approaches have increased in popularity over the last decade. In the public sector they have obtained wide political support. This has been seen as a means of making process improvements whilst optimizing cost expenditures in order to provide improved value for money. The UK Audit Commission is an example of where they have crossed boundaries to embrace working relationships with counterparts in the European Union (EU). This has been effective in collaboration to help improve inter-governmental policy implementation. (McQuaid, 2000). Reduction of costs and process improvements In these difficult financial times both Central Government public sector bodies and local authorities have been faced with managing tight budgetary programmes and reducing costs. The latter meaning resource and cost optimization in order to show the best returns on investment for monies expended. This has focused attention on streamlining processes in order to create improved efficiencies and eliminate redundancies. In addition, concepts of outsourcing to reduce resource costs and capital expenditure. Local Authorities in the UK have been very active in this area. Barnet Council is implementing an outsourcing plan in order to save Ã £120m . Others like Cornwall Council have been examining strategic partnerships to outsource both front and back office functions. IT departments remain particularly vulnerable because they are capital intensive and expensive to both operate and maintain. (Terry, 2013). Expanding networks and building knowledge In order for an organization to be successful it must manage its four pillars of knowledge. These being Leadership, Organization, Technology and Learning. Information Technology (Pillar 3) has achieved an amazing impact in the promotion and dissemination of knowledge in the business environment. Unfortunately Technology has had a greater influence on guiding the strategic planning of organizations, as opposed to the other way round. One example being that of Enterprise Planning Systems like SAP and J.D. Edwards One World system. Organizations have re-engineered their knowledge base and business processes in order to meet the integrated demands of the software application. Knowledge Managers need to understand that despite the many advantages Information Technology (IT) has to offer the workplace it is not a magic utopian panacea. Equally any Information Technology application that undervalues Knowledge Management will equally fail in the business place. If Knowledge Management is to be considered effective with IT in business it must be treated as its equal partner. Disadvantages of working across boundaries The main disadvantages of working across boundaries are enumerated as follows: Complexity and Commonality People, Culture and Leadership Power and Politics Performance Accountability and Budgets Complexity and commonality The success to working across boundaries is where sufficient empathy exists to recognise shared goals and values in order to predicate a desired outcome. Where there is a lack of sufficient commonality this can be a serious barrier towards attaining a successful outcome. The importance of shared or common goals is therefore of paramount importance in any collaborative venture. Trying to force collaboration in the wrong environmental setting will most likely incur resistance and ultimately force of costs and resource effort providing little return on investment. One particular example in the Public sector relates to the large failure of IT projects that have often lacked sufficient commonality. In 2003 in the UK a poll stated that only one third of all IT projects were successful. Nearly 70% of all projects being severely challenged or failing in their entirety. (Post Report 200, 2003). People culture and leadership The people issue is extremely important when working across boundaries as it requires a structured but flexible work group that are able to collaborate over both hard and soft structure. In the public sector the staff need to develop cross-boundary skills in order to facilitate inter agency co-operation. These however can be highly influenced by both policy and political agenda. It has been argued that within the public sector the influence of Human Resource Management (HRM) groups have created significant barriers to cross-party working relationships. Lack of good leadership skills in the public sector provided the inability for many senior leaders to work across boundaries and manage complex business transformation programmes. This prevented optimum leveraging of resources between different organisations. Good leaders are important enablers as they are important for leveraging resources, motivating people and ensuring that the work gets done. As such poor leadership constitutes a serious barrier in order to enable working across boundaries. This results in what has often been referred to as silo management style, the inability to progress beyond your own defined domain. Power and Politics The concept of working across boundaries may have a serious influence on the reshaping of power and politics within an organisation. This can be particularly potent where an area is perceived to be under threat. In this sense both politics and power are intertwined and political endorsements have the ability to create tremendous barriers. Ministers set the signals for civil servants to work across boundaries but this is often towards the attainment of specific political agendas. These can be very fickle and subject to change, hence the civil service has to be articulate in how this is both managed and interpreted. Performance in accountability and budgets Improved performance targets have been very popular in recent years. This has meant working across boundaries to optimise business processes and resource effort. Failure in the reconfiguration of performance systems can create significant barriers and a great deal of disruption in provision of remedial action. Budget attainment has equally been criticised in terms of holding Managers responsible for achieving budget figures, despite the fact that cross border relationships have provided them with only limited control and influence over the finances. (Parton, 1998). CONCLUSION The concept of working across boundaries is not a new concept but one that has been with us for many decades. Technology has created more enablers in terms of making this more operationally efficient and the ability to share information and knowledge. The reality of globalisation, struggling financial markets, the need for cost cutting and austerity measures have increased the need for more collaborative working. The use of sharing information in a collaborative environment often results in better outcomes and an improved managed risk portfolio. Leadership skills have become of paramount importance and in particular the skills required to motivate and influence others in a collaborative teamwork environment. Local authorities have been particularly successful in working with private sector relationships in order to enhance service provision, increased efficiencies and implementation of cost reduction programmes.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Cancer and Terry Tempest Williams' Refuge Ã¢â¬Å"I cannot prove my mother, my grandmothers, along with my aunts developed cancer from nuclear fallout in Utah. But I canÃ¢â¬â¢t prove they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t.Ã¢â¬ Epilogue, Refuge In Terry Tempest WilliamsÃ¢â¬â¢s Refuge, death slowly claimed almost all of the women of her family. Death took WilliamsÃ¢â¬â¢ family members one by one just one or two years apart. In every case, the cause was cancer. Williams insisted in the epilogue that fall-out from the 1951-62 nuclear testing in Utah brought cancer to her family. Because there are many other causes of cancer, such as genetic and environmental factors, it is hard for one to insist that nuclear fall-out causes cancer. Therefore, it is important to find out how and why nuclear fall-out can cause cancer and relate it to WilliamsÃ¢â¬â¢ claim that there is a connection between cancer in her family and nuclear fall-out. The risks that can develop cancer are complicated and complex. To indicate one single cause of cancer is hard. However, certain environmental causes are strongly interrelated with the cause of particular cancers, such as cigarette smoking and lung cancer and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light and skin cancer (CancerSource). It is also known that, Ã¢â¬Å"Ionizing radiation consists of x-rays, UV light, and radioactivity whose energy can damage cells and chromosomes. Radioactivity increases the risk of cancer.Ã¢â¬ Source to indicate the effects of radioactivity is the U.S bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. After all these years, the Japanese are still suffering from all kinds of cancer caused by many long lived chemicals such as Strontium-90 and Cesium-147 from the fallout. Ã¢â¬Å"High rate of leukemiaÃ¢â¬ was found among the people who had survived Hiroshima and Nagasa... ... it has been established that chemicals in radioactivity cause cancer. Second, there is much evidence that many U.S civilians died from the effects of nuclear fall-out. Third, WilliamsÃ¢â¬â¢ family has no background of cancer until 1950s. Williams claimed women in her family died of cancer. From all the evidences we have found, we can confidently insist that nuclear fall-out causes cancer. Therefore, WilliamsÃ¢â¬â¢ claim is evidently correct. Bibliography Brodersen, Tom. Ã¢â¬Å"Compensation available to Fallout Cancer Victims.Ã¢â¬ The Sharlot Hall Museum (August 25,2002). 11 April 2005 Dillon, Lucinda. Ã¢â¬Å"Toxic Utah: Ghosts in the wind.Ã¢â¬ Deseretnews (February 15,2001). 11 April 2005 Steele Dorn, Ka ren. Ã¢â¬Å"Time bombs keep going off for cancer-plagued families in Idaho who lived downwind of nuclear testing in the 1950s.Ã¢â¬ Downwinders (October 24, 2004). 11 April 2005
Friday, July 19, 2019
The History of Tobacco In 3000 B.C the Ancient Egyptians burnt sweet herbs and frankincense when sacrificing to their gods. This was the beginning of smoking. Then in the beginning of the Christian era smoke was inhaled through the burning fur of a hare, the diagnoses for epilepsy was the inhalation of smoke from a goat's horn and for consumption, smoke inhaled through a reed of dried dung of an ox. Somewhere in the United States was believed to be the birthplace of tobacco, a plant of the genus Nicotiana. How and when it was discovered is unknown (Huron Indian myth has it that in ancient times, when the land was barren and the people were starving, the Great Spirit sent forth a woman to save humanity. As she travelled over the world, everywhere her right hand touched the soil, there grew potatoes. And everywhere her left hand touched the soil, there grew corn. And when the world was rich and fertile, she sat down and rested. When she arose, there grew tobacco). What is certain is that tobacco smoking was practised among the early Mayas, probably in the district of Tabasco, Mexico, as part of their religious ceremonies. The Mayans had no paper to wrap their tobacco in so they wrapped it in palm leaves or cornhusks, and stuffed it into reeds or bamboo. On the other hand they also smoked rolled tobacco leaves as crude cigars. Indians further north made pipes, some with a bowl and mouthpiece, others shaped like a Y, and placed the forked ends into their nostrils. They also blended their tobacco with other herbs and plants to vary the flavour. In South America, the Aztecs smoked and took snuff. Elsewhere in the American continent, tobacco was chewed, eaten, drunk as an in... ...f cigarettes a day. If you want to find out how much an average smoker pays for cigarettes per annum you do this: ÃâÃ £4.33 (a packet of cigarettes) ÃâÃ ´ 7 (days per week) = ÃâÃ £ 30.31 (amount paid for cigarettes a week) ÃâÃ £ 30.31 (amount paid for cigarettes a week) ÃâÃ ´ 52 (weeks per year) = ÃâÃ £1576.12 (amount paid for cigarettes a year) So an average smoker pays approximately ÃâÃ £1576.12 a year, so if you take up smoking you are more than likely to spend more than ÃâÃ £1500 a year in cigarettes. In the U.K the price of a pack of 20 premium brand cigarettes currently costs ÃâÃ £4.33, of which ÃâÃ £3.45 (80%) is tax. Thus out of the ÃâÃ £1576.12 spent a year by a smoker 80% is taken by the Government, which is ÃâÃ £1260.90. This is the main reason why the Government doesn?t ban smoking, because they are making ÃâÃ £1260.90 per smoker per year in the U.K.
In order to understand the Counter Reformation one must consider the political factors and motivators behind them as well as the belief factors when examining clashes with the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church during 16th century experienced a reformation that was both politically and belief driven. The Catholic Reformation also known as the Counter Reformation allowed the church to clearly define its position, eliminate unchristian practices and examine its role in world. This paper will address the political motivators of the Counter Reformation, the unchristian practices that fueled corruption and the clearly defined religious concerns of reformers. It will establish that the use of patronage and nepotism ultimately undermined the spiritual piety of the church. Also, the movements that brought spirituality back to the church will be addressed along with those movements that led to separation from church. In detailing the events and character of this era and analyzing the outcomes of reform it will be concluded that the Counter Reformation was the beginning of a stronger church and an end to an era that quite possibly could have led to the dissolution of the Catholic Church. One must understand the political make up of the Catholic Church during this period prior to addressing the reforms to the church. The church was far more than a religious institution. The Catholic Church was supreme in Europe. The power of the pope was total and this was supplemented by the power the Holy Roman Emperor had as temporal defender of the Catholic Church. Even though the church had no determinate territory it was a state. It had a monarch as a pope, it princes in prelates and its subjects in Western Christendom. It had legislative assemblies in ecumenical councils, a constitution in cannon law, and fiscal agency in the Curia. It went to war, negotiated treaties and collected taxies. The church was the Holy Roman Empire with a stronghold throughout Europe. But this would quickly change.(www.History) At the time of the reformation there was great concern that the Old Church with all its history and tradition was in trouble. This concern came from both within the church and outside the church. Protestant and Catholic reformers alike were troubled by the corruption in the church and its inner workings. Reformers saw that the Christian faith had in many ways been taken... ...ounter-Reformation after the Council of Trent a large shift in power occurred in Italy. The Pope who was once a large political figure in Italy had lost his political power but gained Religious Power. Patrons, who had dispersed kin as clergy members all over Italy, also lost power. Their power of placement of clergy was no longer allowed and bishops were given the choice of where clergy members should be located. The Political power that had once belonged to both the Pope and the Patrons had now been given to the sovereigns of the separated nations, who full well knew that in the Council of Trent their power would grow. The Council of was a turning-point in the Catholic Church. There was a certainty in practices and beliefs, the churchÃ¢â¬â¢s foundation had been strengthened and there was a base to grow. Catholicism had reestablished itself and it was a force to be dealt with. By the end of the sixteenth century the Catholic Church was still making some serious reforms. This reform movement which extended into the seventeenth century raised moral and educational standards of the clergy. All inspired by the church with a new zeal and morale. One must conclude that reform was needed. Understanding Counter Reformation Essay -- Catholic Church Political R In order to understand the Counter Reformation one must consider the political factors and motivators behind them as well as the belief factors when examining clashes with the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church during 16th century experienced a reformation that was both politically and belief driven. The Catholic Reformation also known as the Counter Reformation allowed the church to clearly define its position, eliminate unchristian practices and examine its role in world. This paper will address the political motivators of the Counter Reformation, the unchristian practices that fueled corruption and the clearly defined religious concerns of reformers. It will establish that the use of patronage and nepotism ultimately undermined the spiritual piety of the church. Also, the movements that brought spirituality back to the church will be addressed along with those movements that led to separation from church. In detailing the events and character of this era and analyzing the outcomes of reform it will be concluded that the Counter Reformation was the beginning of a stronger church and an end to an era that quite possibly could have led to the dissolution of the Catholic Church. One must understand the political make up of the Catholic Church during this period prior to addressing the reforms to the church. The church was far more than a religious institution. The Catholic Church was supreme in Europe. The power of the pope was total and this was supplemented by the power the Holy Roman Emperor had as temporal defender of the Catholic Church. Even though the church had no determinate territory it was a state. It had a monarch as a pope, it princes in prelates and its subjects in Western Christendom. It had legislative assemblies in ecumenical councils, a constitution in cannon law, and fiscal agency in the Curia. It went to war, negotiated treaties and collected taxies. The church was the Holy Roman Empire with a stronghold throughout Europe. But this would quickly change.(www.History) At the time of the reformation there was great concern that the Old Church with all its history and tradition was in trouble. This concern came from both within the church and outside the church. Protestant and Catholic reformers alike were troubled by the corruption in the church and its inner workings. Reformers saw that the Christian faith had in many ways been taken... ...ounter-Reformation after the Council of Trent a large shift in power occurred in Italy. The Pope who was once a large political figure in Italy had lost his political power but gained Religious Power. Patrons, who had dispersed kin as clergy members all over Italy, also lost power. Their power of placement of clergy was no longer allowed and bishops were given the choice of where clergy members should be located. The Political power that had once belonged to both the Pope and the Patrons had now been given to the sovereigns of the separated nations, who full well knew that in the Council of Trent their power would grow. The Council of was a turning-point in the Catholic Church. There was a certainty in practices and beliefs, the churchÃ¢â¬â¢s foundation had been strengthened and there was a base to grow. Catholicism had reestablished itself and it was a force to be dealt with. By the end of the sixteenth century the Catholic Church was still making some serious reforms. This reform movement which extended into the seventeenth century raised moral and educational standards of the clergy. All inspired by the church with a new zeal and morale. One must conclude that reform was needed.