Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Invention of the Email and Bank Secrecy Act - Essay Example Global communication has become indispensable in human society as it determines the relationship between people belonging to different nations and cultures. An important mode of communication is the email. It is an electronic method of transmitting messages from one part of the globe to another part in a matter of seconds. It was in 1978 when a 14-year-old boy Shiva Ayyadurai created the first email. Email has definitely brought a new dimension to human communication and interaction. Its impact is even more prominent in the business world with email becoming the most preferred mode of communication. There has been a rapid growth of its popularity since its inception and this has been proved by a survey conducted in February 1998 at an Institution of Information Scientists. According to the survey, 60 participants booked a place by e-mail while the others booked either on the phone or have used fax. In business today, email is the most common process of communication with clients and off-site staff (Hill, 2005, pp.93-94). Its major advantage is that it is password protected which means the information on email can be accessible only by its user. It also saves time since messages sent via email takes under a second to get transmitted to the target email. The Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) was first introduced in the year 1970 by Congress in the U.S. in order to protect the global financial system from money-related crimes like money laundering and terrorist financing. Money laundering is the method by which illegally earned money is circulated and integrated into the financial system so as to make it appear clean. Basically, it is a system by which money received from one (illegal) source is appeared to have been received from another (legitimate) source.Ã
Monday, October 28, 2019
Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Emily Dickinson Essay The lives and works of Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Emily Dickinson may be different in many ways, but there are existential treads that bind these two people together by similarities. Elizabeth Browning became famous while she was alive and was very influential opposed to Emily Dickinson who became famous for her poems after she died. In the eighteenth century two of the finest poets; Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Emily Dickinson are two people who are close in certain aspects but completely different individuals. Thus, looking deeper into each individualÃ¢â¬â¢s lives and works will give us a better perception on these two poets. The Victorian poet Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth Barrett Browning was born in 1806, March 6th Durham, England, and was the oldest child out of twelve childrenÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth Barrett BrowningÃ¢â¬ ). Ã¢â¬Å"ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s father, Edward Barrett, was a businessman who was very wealthy from many sugar plantations in JamaicaÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth Barrett BrowningÃ¢â¬ ). As a child, Elizabeth wrote her first earliest known poem for her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s birthday and for her fifteenth birthday; her father had one of her poems privately printed. This poem was Ã¢â¬Å"The Battle of MarathonÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth Barrett BrowningÃ¢â¬ ). Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth experienced her first sorrow in 1828 when her mother Mary suddenly diedÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth Barrett BrowningÃ¢â¬ ). Ã¢â¬Å"By the time Elizabeth had moved to London, her health was poor and she suffered from a spinal injury and shown signs of a lung condition but was never diagnosedÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth Barrett BrowningÃ¢â¬ ). However in these conditions Elizabeth never seemed to give up her love for poetry. Shortly after ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s brother, Edward, drowned in a boating accident on his way back to London (Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth Barrett BrowningÃ¢â¬ ). Ã¢â¬Å"Feeling responsible for his death, Elizabeth became a recluse and practically an invalid rarely leaving her roomÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth Barrett BrowningÃ¢â¬ ). This characteristic made Elizabeth similar to Emily Dickinson in the way that they are both easily affected by a tragic incident in their lives, resulting in the act of isolating themselves from others. Ã¢â¬Å"ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s work brought her the man that would eventually woo, win, and marry her: Robert BrowningÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth Barrett BrowningÃ¢â¬ ). Ã¢â¬Å"Robert became so impressed with ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s work that he wrote to her and over the course of the next few months, he and Elizabeth wrote to each other almost every day until they finally met on May 20, 1845, where they discovered that they were already in loveÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth Barrett BrowningÃ¢â¬ ). Ã¢â¬Å"More letters (over 500 in all) and visits continued until the two were secretly married on September 12, 1846Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth Barrett BrowningÃ¢â¬ ). Ã¢â¬Å"The newlyweds fled to Florence, her father never forgave her, and she found herself disinherited. She and her father never reconciledÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth Barrett BrowningÃ¢â¬ ). Elizabeth and Robert remained in Italy for the remainder of their lives and had a baby boy, Penini in 1849 (Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth Barrett BrowningÃ¢â¬ ). In 1850, ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Sonnets from the PortugueseÃ¢â¬ were published. Ã¢â¬Å"Although they had been written as a private gift to Robert, her husband was so moved by the forty-four sonnets the he felt they should not be hidden from the world and published them, making the collection stand as her greatest well-known achievementÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth Barrett BrowningÃ¢â¬ ). Elizabeth died on June, 29, 1861, and was buried in Florence (Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth Barrett BrowningÃ¢â¬ ). Likewise, Emily DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s writing was similar to Browning in the way that she crafted a new type of first person persona (Wider). Ã¢â¬Å"Like the speakers in BrowningÃ¢â¬â¢s works, DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s are sharp-sighted observers who see the inescapable limitations of their societies as well as their imagined and imaginable escapesÃ¢â¬ (Wider). Ã¢â¬Å"In 1890, four years after DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s death, the first volume of her poetry appearedÃ¢â¬ (Wider). Ã¢â¬Å"Emily Dickinson was born on December 10, 1830 in Amherst, MassachusettsÃ¢â¬ (Wider). Ã¢â¬Å"EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s father at the time of her birth was an ambitious young lawyer, and was educated at Amherst and Yale. He returned to his hometown and joined the ailing law practice of his father, Samuel Fowler DickinsonÃ¢â¬ (Wider). Ã¢â¬Å"Edward joined his father in the family home, built by Samuel in 1813Ã¢â¬ (Wider). Ã¢â¬Å"Active in the Whig Party, Edward was elected to the Massachusetts Start Legislature (1837-1839) and the Massachusetts State Senate (1842-1843)Ã¢â¬ (Wider). Ã¢â¬Å"Little was known of EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s motherÃ¢â¬ (Wider). Ã¢â¬Å"She often represented as a passive wife of a domineering husbandÃ¢â¬ (Wider). Ã¢â¬Å"Emily wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the only child of Edward and Emily Dickinson; she also had a brother William Austin Dickinson and a sister Livinia Norcross DickinsonÃ¢â¬ (Wider). Ã¢â¬Å"All three children attended the one-room primary school in Amherst and then moved on to Amherst Academy, the school out of which Amherst College had grownÃ¢â¬ (Wider). Futhermore, Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth Barrett Browning was the most respected woman poet of the Victorian ageÃ¢â¬ (Burlinson). Ã¢â¬Å"By 1900, she was better known as the heroine of a turbulent love story than as a prolific and successful writerÃ¢â¬ (Burlinson). Ã¢â¬Å"Browning was an experimental writer who felt sufficiently comfortable working within poetic convention to disrupt and revise it to her own endsÃ¢â¬ (Burlinson). Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth was known for writing sonnets, allegories, ballads, political odes, love poems, occasional verses, poetic dramas, and an epic, as well as essays in literary criticism and a translation of AeschylusÃ¢â¬ (Burlinson). Her greatest poetic success was in the sonnets from the Portuguese as stated above in ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s biography. Elizabeth poured all her profound thoughts into these sonnets and yet the exquisiteness if the mould has compelled a rigorous pruning alike of superabundant imagery, which has had the happiest affect (Arnold). Ã¢â¬Å"One of her best known poems from 1850 is Ã¢â¬Å"The Runaway Slave at PilgrimÃ¢â¬â¢s Point,Ã¢â¬ an impassioned protest against slavery in which a black woman; the rape victim of her white master, murders her childÃ¢â¬ (Burlinson). Ã¢â¬Å"The rage and grief of the woman chillingly conveyed in the first-person narrativeÃ¢â¬ (Burlinson). Elizabeth held a deep belief that poetry could change attitudes toward the world, and indeed it did. Ã¢â¬Å"Her poem Ã¢â¬Å"The Cry of the ChildrenÃ¢â¬ caused a sensational reaction that caused public reform in a protest against the working conditions of childrenÃ¢â¬ (Burlinson). Ã¢â¬Å"In fact, Elizabeth is one of the greatest sonnet writers in our language, and she is worthy enough to be ranked side by side with Milton and WordsworthÃ¢â¬ (Arnold). Elizabeth has managed to touch all the chief human relationships and when she touched them, it was always in a noble manner and severe simplicity which is greatly preferred to be her most luscious and copious versification (Arnold). Unlike Elizabeth, Emily seemed to be more reclusive with her life and at a young age Emily went into seclusion, resulting in her not socially maturing. Emily also avoided doing routine house work or other normal daily activities because she like being alone to dream and use her imagination (Southworth). Many readers believe that by shunning the realities of everyday life, Emily was able to find the greater reality in the realm of imagination (Southworth). Despite being lonely and frustrated she never out grew adolescence and this seemed to show in her poetry (Southworth). Her writings showed that she was not capable of grasping the joy of reality and that she really didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a true understanding of life challenges (Southworth). Like Elizabeth, Ã¢â¬Å"EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s poems were meant to be and experience, to render experiences as well as refer to itÃ¢â¬ (Ryan). Ã¢â¬Å"For Emily the living presence is the poem itself. If it is not intermediately between the poet and the reader, it is the thing alive the reader experiencesÃ¢â¬ (Ryan). Ã¢â¬Å"Dickinson was a master at grammar, rhythm, rhetoric, and narrative. A master of the inextricable, intricate, intimate and constantly shifting, interrelationshipÃ¢â¬â¢s among themÃ¢â¬ (Ryan). Ã¢â¬Å"Emily Dickinson wrote nearly 1800 poems, but only seven were published in her lifetime. When the first posthumous collection of her work appeared in 1890, she was regarded as an interesting but idiosyncratic minor poet. As the twentieth century has progressed, however, her poetic achievement has won interesting recognitionÃ¢â¬ (Tredell). Ã¢â¬Å"Dickinson nonetheless engages in an original and vibrant way with love, eroticism, nature, death, immortality and eternity. Her work is notable for its power and compression and complexity, its precise and startling phrasing, its inventiveness of rhythm and rhyme, and the exploratory daring which belies its apparent decorumÃ¢â¬ (Tredell). Emily said to Higginson that poetry is something that makes the body feel so cold that no fire could warm it, that if the reader physically feels as if the top of their head were taken off that its poetry. She claims that this is the only way she knows its poetry (Ryan). Elizabeth Barrett BrowningÃ¢â¬â¢s poem Ã¢â¬Å"The Cry of the ChildrenÃ¢â¬ is about child labor. In this poem Elizabeth is trying to show us how the children feel about working and how it makes them sad and exhausted. They suffer as they work with trembling knees and heavy eyelids. The children are demanded to keep working no matter how tired and weak they are. I know that this is the theme because the speaker says Ã¢â¬Å"Do ye hear the children weeping,Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"The Cry of the ChildrenÃ¢â¬ ). This means that the children were weeping in sorrow because in the playtime of others they are working. Another detail that supports my idea for the theme is the lines Ã¢â¬Å"For oh, say the children, we are weary, / and we cannot run or leap;Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"The Cry of the ChildrenÃ¢â¬ ). This detail shows that the children are suffering that they are tired and weak. When Elizabeth describes how the children look she is using imagery by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"we are weary, / and we cannot run or leap; / if we cared for any meadows, it were merely / to drop down in them and sleep. / our knees tremble sorely in the stooping, / we fall upon our faces, trying to go; / and, underneath our heavy eyelids drooping, / the reddest flower would look as pale as snowÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"The Cry of the ChildrenÃ¢â¬ ). This connotation is showing how the children are looking and feeling this verse is not only using imagery but it also uses a simile to show how the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes are so tired and heavy that the reddest flower would look as pale as snow for them. Emily DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s poem Ã¢â¬Å"Heart, we will forget himÃ¢â¬ talks about how Emily is trying to forget the man that hurt her and her heart. In the poem Emily is instructing her heart Ã¢â¬Å"to forget the warmthÃ¢â¬ and that she will forget Ã¢â¬Å"the lightÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"But Emily is scared that if her heart takes too long to forget, then it will give her time to remember, thus causing her to not be able to carry out her self-given assignmentÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Heart, we will forget himÃ¢â¬ ). I know that the theme of the poem is getting over someone you love by the line Ã¢â¬Å"Heart, we will forget himÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Heart, we will forget himÃ¢â¬ ). This line is referring to EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s heart trying to forget the man that hurt both her and her heart. Another detail supporting my thought for the theme is the line Ã¢â¬Å"you may forget the warmth he gave / I will forget the lightÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Heart, we will forget himÃ¢â¬ ). This line is trying to demonstrate that the heart is trying to forget the warmth that the man gave it and that Emily will try to forget the light he brought to her world. In this poem Emily tells the heart what do to by commands making the hearts seem as if it can act, think and follow orders like a brain. By making the heart have a human characteristic Emily is using the literary device personification. Emily also uses a literary device called tautology which is use when there is a repetition of words, and in the first stanza of Ã¢â¬Å"Heart, we will forget himÃ¢â¬ Emily uses the word forget three times to emphases that she and her heart will forget the one that broke them. Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Emily Dickinson were two poets that works were very similar in structure despite being born in different ears. The two poets depicted similar first personÃ¢â¬â¢s personas in their writings and became famous for it. Although Elizabeth became famous while she was alive, Emily Dickinson did not. Each poet however had their work published and found by someone else. ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s husband was the person who made her forty-four sonnets one of her well-known achievements and for Emily her sister Livinia was the founder of many poems left from her death. By comparing the works and lives of Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Emily Dickinson, we can conclude that the inner life of an artist has more impact on their literary output than the external factors that shaped their lives. Works Cited Arnold, William T. Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806-1861).Ã¢â¬ The English Poets: The Nineteenth Century, Wordswort to Rossetti. Ed. Thomas Humphry Ward. Vol. 4. Macmillan and Co., 1893. 562-567. Rpt. in Nineteenth-Century Literature Criticism. Ed. Laurie Lanzen Harris. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale Research, 1981. Literature Resource Center. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. Burlinson, Kathryn. Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth Barrett Browning: Overview.Ã¢â¬ Reference Guide to English Literature. Ed. D. L. Kirkpatrick. 2nd ed. Chicago: St. James Press, 1991. Literature Resource Center. Web. 11 Dec. 2011. Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth Barrett Browning.Ã¢â¬ LitFinder Contemporary Collection. Detroit: Gale, 2007. LitFinder. Wed. 6 Dec. 2011. Ryan, Michael (American College Teacher). Ã¢â¬Å"DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Stories.Ã¢â¬ The American Poetry Review Mar.-Apr. 2009: 5+. Literature Resource Center. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. Southworth, James Granville. Ã¢â¬Å"Emily Dickinson.Ã¢â¬ Some Modern American Poets. James Granville Southworth. Blackwell, 1950. 14. LitFinder. Web. 11 Dec. 2011. Tredell, Nicholas. Ã¢â¬Å"Emily Dickinson: Overview.Ã¢â¬ Gay and Lesbian Biography. Ed. Michael J. Tyrkus and Michael Bronski. Detroit: St. James Press, 1997. Literature Resources from Gale. Web. 28 Jan. 2012. Wider, Sarah Ann. Ã¢â¬Å"Emily (Elizabeth) Dickinson.Ã¢â¬ The American Renaissance in New England: Fourth Series. Ed. Wesley T. Mott. Detroit: Gale Group, 2001. Dictionary of Literary Biography Vol. 243. Literature Resource Center. Web. 11 Dec. 2011.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Tattoos are a form of creativity. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s societies, tattoos are a large part of many different cultures but all share the common body decoration. They are a way to express yourself, your religion, or your inner feelings. Tattoos are permanent colored images on the skin. In history, they are marked as the most universal type of permanent body decoration. Tattooing can have many different explanations for getting them. There are also different categories of tattoos. There are five main types of tattoos. There are abstractions, naturalistic, stylized, combination, and pledges. Abstractions are resulting from ancient designs. They consist of black ink and gray shading. Abstractions usually have the least artwork. For example, Old English letters and Chinese symbols would be considered abstractions. Naturalistic tattoos have a natural look, and contain complex details to make the design appear more realistic. Shading, depth, and perspective are used to make the image seem highly detailed. Some common naturalistic tattoos include faces of religious leaders. Stylized tattoos can appear in a huge selection of shapes, sizes, and styles. They can contain images of flowers, tigers, as well as lions and panthers, which symbolize courage and strength. Dragons and zodiacs can be customized to have a stylized look. These tattoos are quite popular because they tend to be less expensive than the other types of tattoos. Combination tattoos combine several dif ferent types of designs and styles, and include pieces of out of place images that have no consistent theme. Pledge tattoos are common in Western society. They include hearts, anchors, names, and military or regiment names. Even though these are the least expensive of all the tattoo t... ...D 13-15). In conclusion, tattoos have been accepted throughout all different societies. In the past, tattoos were seen as deviant and frowned upon because it goes against the social norm. People did not understand the significance and the creativity behind tattooing. Tattoos are a form of creativity. They are a way to express yourself, your religion, or your inner feelings. Each type has a significant meaning or reason. There are different categories and different types. There are multiple ways to get one. If you do not want permanent ones, henna is a good alternative. Even though tattooing has been around for decades, there are still risks. Tattoos can still get infected or have allergic reactions. New technology has developed to allow an unwanted tattoo to be removed. Tattoos have come a long way in society and will continue to develop throughout todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Hopes and dreams help people to survive even if they never become real. How far is this true for the characters in Of Mice and Men? Support your ideas with details from writing. Of Mice and Men is a novel written by John Steinbeck here two itinerant ranch workers, George Milton and Lennie Small share the same American dream. The story is set in California, at the beginning of the 20th century, during the despotic Great depression where dreams and hopes were the only purposes of living. Desires and aspirations are significant in Of Mice and Men. In a world where it is impossible to have a friend, to talk or to listen to somebody, the hope of a dream coming true is the only thing that can keep George, Lennie and Candy going on, surviving in that hostile environment. George Milton fantasizes about having Ã¢â¬Å"a big vegetable patch and a rabbit hutch and chickensÃ¢â¬ , helping him to withstand in his precarious situation. The crux of dream for George is not the absence of work, or the easy living, or even having money, it is simply grounded in having for the first time of his life a place to belong. This dream is a driving force for George, a powerful motivation which persuades him that all of these hard working days are not worthless. In fact, George Ã¢â¬Å"said thoughtfully, Look, if me anÃ¢â¬â¢ Lennie work a month anÃ¢â¬â¢ donÃ¢â¬â¢t spenÃ¢â¬â¢ nothing, weÃ¢â¬â¢ll have a hundred bucksÃ¢â¬ . This shows how George is ready to work hard in order to obtain this sum of money. Moreover, the word Ã¢â¬Å"thoughtfullyÃ¢â¬ imparts that George is deeply thinking of working hard, thus portrayed as extremely motivated. The dream is perceived as reward, an indemnity for all the troubles he has already endured in his life. However, George doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe entirely in the dream. The protagonist knows that there is a very few chances for the dream to come true. Thus, it is not the dream but the hope of the dream which stimulates LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s companion. Moreover, George uses this dream to keep Lennie in check. For instance, George promises Lennie to Ã¢â¬Ëtend the rabbits all right. Ã¢â¬ËSpecially if he remembers as good as thatÃ¢â¬ . Here, George manipulates cleverly the dream in order to captivate LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s attention and to have him remember not to Ã¢â¬Å"say a wordÃ¢â¬ in front of the boss. The dream turns from a motivating force into a reward for LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s effort. Lennie Small yearns for Ã¢â¬ËlivinÃ¢â¬â¢ off the fatta the lan, anÃ¢â¬â¢ have rabbitsÃ¢â¬ . From his point of view, this dream is not a simple dream, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a hope. A hope in which he could Ã¢â¬Å"tend the rabbitsÃ¢â¬ and all his other favourite animals. Despite the fact that GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s and LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s dream is identical, their perceptions are diverging. LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s approach is much more childish, more fantastical and unrealistic. Besides, Lennie is extremely fond of his dream and believes extremely in it. Lennie is not feeling as Ã¢â¬Å"ifÃ¢â¬ but Ã¢â¬Å"whenÃ¢â¬ The absence of conditional in LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s speech reveals that he really believes in this dream. Furthermore, Lennie knows by heart and can recite, word by word his most precious wish. This shows that Lennie has propably heard the same thing over and over again. In deed, as the protagonist is mentally challenged, the fact that he can remember this dream demonstrates how devoted he is to this wish. Moreover, when talking about that specific desire, Lennie is constantly interrupting George in his speech. At this moment, LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude and behaviour portrays a trancelike character, escaping successfully in his ideal world. Furthermore, after a savage and wild fight with Curley, LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s first question to George is: Ã¢â¬Å"I can still tend the rabbits, George? Ã¢â¬ . Thus, Lennie appears to be obsessed with his dream, even after a ferocious assault. This shows how Lennie is attached to his main goal. In addition, LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s attachment is also revealed when the protagonist is ready to Ã¢â¬Å"break their God damn necks and smash Ã¢â¬Ëem with a stickÃ¢â¬ . This serious threat demonstrates LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s determination to achieve his desire and also how virulent he can be. Anything thatÃ¢â¬â¢s in the dreamÃ¢â¬â¢s way will endure LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s barbarity, maybe the death sentence. Moreover, Lennie is only intimidating imaginary cats. This points out that Lennie is extremely resolved to attain his wish, even ready to surpass a fictitious obstacle. This extract is therefore used to foreshadow CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife tragic fate. In deed, CandyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is perceived since her first apparition as an obstruction to the dream. George orders Lennie to Ã¢â¬Å"keep away from herÃ¢â¬ . Therefore, if CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is susceptible to make the dream impossible to come true, Lennie can easily kill her, and CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife will turn out to be murdered by Lennie. Despite LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s undisputable faith, his dream turns out to be an unattainable escape. However, the protagonist manages to flee his miserable life thanks to his dream. CandyÃ¢â¬â¢s dream is to join GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s and LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s plan, in order to flee his loneliness. CandyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial contribution increases the probability for the dream to come true. As a consequence, George, Lennie and Candy Ã¢â¬Å"fell into silence. They looked at one another, amazed. This thing they had never believed in was coming trueÃ¢â¬ . This quote suggests that this precise moment represents the crux of the protagonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ dreams. The word amazed implies a serious fascination where the three men realize at the same time the possibility for their dream to come true. Moreover, Ã¢â¬Ëthey sat still, all bemused by the beauty of the thing, each mind was popped into the future when this lovely thing should come aboutÃ¢â¬ . The quotation shows how engrossed and enthralled the three men are. Furthermore, the adjective bemused suggests how motionless and quite are the three man, astonished and perplexed about the possibility for the dream to come true. However, one could see that CandyÃ¢â¬â¢s participation spoils the dream of the farm by making it a genuine possibility rather than an on going and eternal wish. We are suddenly asked weather the dream isnÃ¢â¬â¢t better off as a dream, something they can believe and visualize thatÃ¢â¬â¢s bigger and better than any other reality. In conclusion, hopes and dreams help George, Lennie and Candy to survive even if they never become real. The farm is a dream for George, a hope for Lennie and even a plan for Candy that help them survive in their miserable lives.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
NATIONAL LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT POLICY 1. Introduction Livestock plays an important role in the national economy of Bangladesh with a direct contribution of 2. 95% percent to the agricultural GDP (Bangladesh Economic Review, 2006) and providing 15 percent of total employment in the economy. The livestock sub-sector that includes poultry offers important employment and livelihood opportunities particularly for the rural poor, including the functionally landless, many of whom regard livestock as a main livelihood option.About 75 percent people rely on livestock to some extent for their livelihood, which clearly indicates that the poverty reduction potential of the livestock sub-sector is high. According to Bangladesh Economic Review, (2006), the growth rate in GDP in 2004-05 for livestock was the highest of any sub-sector at 7. 23%, compared to 0. 15% for crops, and 3. 65% for fisheries sub-sector. These changes have been prompted by a rapid growth in demand for livestock products due t o increase in income, rising population, and urban growth.It is an established fact that high quality animal protein in the form of milk, meat and eggs is extremely important for the proper physical and mental growth of a human being. In Bangladesh, around 8% of total protein for human consumption comes from livestock (BBS, 2000). Hides and skin of cattle, buffaloes, goats and sheep is a valuable export item, ranked third in earnings after RMG and shrimp. Surprisingly, Bangladesh has one of the highest cattle densities: 145 large ruminants/km2 compared with 90 for India, 30 for Ethiopia, and 20 for Brazil. But most of them trace their origin to a poor genetic base.The average weight of local cattle ranges from 125 to 150 kg for cows and from 200 to 250 kg for bulls that falls 25-35% short of the average weight of all-purpose cattle in India (Ã¢â¬Å"Agriculture for 21st Century in BangladeshÃ¢â¬ by Z. Karim, 1997). Milk yields are extremely low: 200-250 litre during a 10-month lac tation period in contrast to 800 litre for Pakistan, 500 litre for India, and 700 litre for all Asia. Despite highest cattle densities in Bangladesh, the current production of milk, meat and eggs are inadequate to meet the current requirement and the deficits are 85. , 77. 4 and 73. 1% respectively (DLS, 2000). If 5% GDP growth rate is considered then the current production of these commodities need to be increased 2. 5 to 3. 0 times by the year 2020 to feed the growing population in the country. This illustrates how urgent is the need to increase the production of milk, meat and eggs. The PRSP (Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper) stresses the importance of the livestock sub-sector in sustaining the acceleration of poverty reduction in the country. The dynamic potential of this emerging sub-sector thus requires critical policy attention.In the past, due importance was not given to the development of the livestock sub-sector despite its significant contribution to the national economy. In the Financial Year 2006-07 the livestock sub-sector received only about 1. 0 percent of the total budget allocation, or only about 3. 5 percent of the agricultural sector budget. Though production of animal protein has maintained an upward trend, daily per capita availability of animal protein presently stands at around 21 gm meat, 43 ml milk and 41 eggs vis-a-vis the recommended intakes of 120 gm meat, 250 ml milk and 104 eggs.Shortage of quality inputs, inadequate services and physical infrastructure, institutional weaknesses in terms of weak regulatory framework and enforcement, limited skilled manpower and resources, and inadequate research and technological advancement are all continuing to act as constraints to livestock development. The growth opportunities in the livestock sub-sector vary significantly among the species.Qualitative rather than quantitative development of large ruminants (cattle and buffalo), a parallel increase of the productivity and population size of the small ruminants (goat and sheep), and poultry keeping emerges as promising to offer substantial growth potentials with a positive impact on nutrition, employment and poverty alleviation. Research and technological development merit priority to counteract allied problems in the fields of feed, breed and disease and meet the challenge of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s livestock sector in the 21st century National Livestock Development Policy has been prepared to address the key hallenges and opportunity for a comprehensive sustainable development of the Livestock sub-sector through creating an enabling policy framework. 2. Objectives of the National Livestock Development Policy The general objective of the National Livestock Development Policy: To provide the enabling environment, opening up opportunities, and reducing risks and vulnerability for harnessing the full potential of livestock sub-sector to accelerate economic growth for reduction of rural poverty in which the private sector wil l remain the main actor, while the public sector will playa facilitating and supportive role.The specific objectives of the National Livestock Development Policy: 1. To promote sustainable improvements in productivity of milk, meat and egg production including processing and value addition; 2. To promote sustained improvements in income, nutrition, and employment for the landless, small and marginal farmers; and 3. To facilitate increased private sector participation and investments in livestock production, livestock services, market development and export of livestock products and by-products. 3. Legal Status of the National Livestock Development PolicyAll the government and autonomous organizations, multi-national institutions, NGOs, CBOs (community based organizations), and persons who are working within the geographical territory of Bangladesh for the management, development and conservation of Livestock resources, import-export or other business related to the livestock sub-sec tor will be under the preview of National livestock Development Policy. 4. Scope of the National Livestock Development Policy The following ten critical areas have been identified for formulating the National livestock Development policy: i.Dairy Development and Meat Production: ii. Poultry Development; iii. Veterinary Services and Animal Health; iv. Feeds and Animal Management; v. Breeds Development; vi. Hides and Skins; vii. Marketing of Livestock Products; viii. International Trade Management ix. Access to Credit and Insurance; and x. Institutional Development for Research and Extension The key policy issues for each of these critical areas are outlined in the following section: 4. 1Dairy Development and Meat Production Dairy Development The opportunity for development of large-scale dairy is limited in Bangladesh due to scarcity of land.However, the potential for development of smallholder dairy is high. Over the last few years, small-scale dairy farming has increased significan tly with the support of credit, feed, veterinary services and provision of self-insurance systems. Small-scale dairy farming provides employment for the poorer segments of the population. The availability of this form of traditional self-employment to rural dwellers, not least women, is important where there is scarcity of alternative income generating opportunities. Smallholder dairy thus widens the scope for the poor with limited access to land to enhance their income.Dairy animals can playa crucial role in household food security, through improved income and nutritional of the low-income groups. Daily farming in Bangladesh is affected by myriads of constraints such as: (i) limited knowledge and technical skills of smallholder dairy farmers; (ii) scarcity of feeds and fodder; (iii) poor quality of feeds; (iv) frequent occurrence of diseases; (v) limited coverage of veterinary services including poor diagnostic facilities; (vi) lack of credit support; (vii) limited milk collection and processing facilities and low prices at collection points; (viii) lack of insurance coverage; (ix) absence of market nformation; (x) lack of appropriate breeds; and (xi) absence of a regulatory body. Policy framework for dairy development is: 1. Cooperative dairy development (Milk Vita model) would be expanded in potential areas allover the country; 2. Successful pro-poor models for community-based smallholder dairy development including appropriate contact farming schemes would be replicated; 3. Smallholder dairy farming, integrated with crop and fish culture would be promoted; 4. Supply chain based production, processing and marketing of milk and milk products would be promoted; . A National Dairy Development Board would be established as a regulatory body to promote dairy development; 6. Ã¢â¬Å"National Dairy Research InstituteÃ¢â¬ would be established to carryout research in various aspects of dairying. Meat Production Around 3. 5 million cattle are slaughtered annually i n the country of which 40 percent are imported through cross-border trade. Around 15 million goats are slaughtered annually mostly of local origin. Of the total slaughter of cattle and goats, around 40 percent is performed during Eid-ul-Azha.Increased demand for quality meat, beef fattening has become an important income generating activity for small fanners, and a potentially important tool for reducing poverty. Beef fattening is considered to have high income generating potential, but faces constraints such as lack of appropriate breeds, knowledge gaps of farmers, lack of proper veterinary services and quality feeds. Most meat is handled under unsatisfactory sanitary conditions in both rural and urban areas. Enforcement of legislation relating to slaughtering or meat inspection is weak.There is generally poor pre-slaughter conditions, sanitation, removal of waste materials, and disposal of offal. The Black Bengal goat is a highly prolific local breed, resistant to many diseases an d can be easily raised under most environments on low quality feed and with little investments. Rearing of Black Bengal goat is an appropriate option for many subsistence farmers. Its demand is growing in both domestic meat markets and internationally for its skins and high quality leather goods.Policy framework for meat production: 1. Animal Slaughter Act, Animal Feed Act and Animal Disease Act would be approved and enforced in order to promote hygienic production of quality meat; 2. Butchers would be trained on scientific methods of slaughtering, meat processing and preservation techniques; 3. Development of beef breeds for increased productivity at farm level; 4. Development of backward and forward linkage system to help improvement of existing cattle fattening system into private enterprises; 5.Private sector would be encouraged to establish mechanized slaughter houses with Static Flaying Frame in Divisional cities; and Local Government would be encouraged to establish slaughter slabs in municipality and Upazila headquarters; 6. Production of Black Bengal Goats would be promoted by ensuring disease prevention, availability of quality bucks and semen for artificial insemination, and knowledge transfer through special projects; 7. Buffalo and sheep farming would be developed in selected high potential areas through special projects. 4. Poultry Development The backyard poultry units require minimum inputs and are often part of integrated crop- aquaculture-livestock farming systems. Their level of production is relatively low but profitability can be high due to low inputs costs and recycling of on-farm by-products. Commercial production systems use birds of improved genetic stock and reared under semi- intensive or intensive management. There are currently an estimated 120,000 commercial poultry farms in Bangladesh, supported by 04 Grand Parent Farms and 69 Parent Stock Farms.While the growth of the poultry industry has contributed to economic growth and inco me of commercial farmers, indiscriminate and unplanned growth of breeder farms and commercial poultry farms, particularly in and around cities and towns is creating environmental hazards. There are at present no guidelines for environmental protection and bio-security when establishing poultry farms. The use of antibiotics in feeds is thought to be common and a cause of public health concern.The constraints facing the sector in general include: (i) lack of infrastructure beyond the Upazila Head Quarters for providing services to poultry farmers; (ii) shortage of skilled manpower; (iii) shortage of quality chicks and breeding materials; (iv) shortage of poultry , feed/feed ingredients and high prices; (v) poor quality of inputs; (vi) lack of quality control facilities for medicine, vaccines and biological products, feed and feed ingredients, chicks, eggs and birds; (vii) drug and vaccine residues in poultry meat; (viii) shortage of vaccines; (ix) lack of organized marketing systems; (x) poor provision of veterinary services; and (xi) insufficient credit and capital especially for the poor. The possible threat of Avian Influenza exacerbates some of these concerns and shortcomings and would require additional measures to be taken. Policy framework or Poultry Development: 1. Successful pro-poor models would be replicated for semi-scavenging poultry development; 2. Formation of poultry smallholder groups, CBOs, and producers associations would be facilitated; 3. Quality control of poultry feeds and feed ingredients would be ensured through establishment of a legal body and enforcement of regulations; 4.Production and consumption of safe (antibiotic residue free) including organic meat and eggs would be promoted; 5. Criteria and guidelines would be established to ensure supply of quality day-old chicks; 6. Specific guidelines would be developed and enforced for establishing environment-friendly commercial poultry farms; Small commercial farms would be converted into profit oriented large farms following cooperative system. 7. Poultry farms of the DLS would be utilized as breeding and multiplication farms / centres for smallholder training, technology testing and demonstration etc 8. Smallholder production and marketing of ducks and minor poultry species (e. g.Quail, Goose, Pigeon, Guinea fowl) in selected areas would be promoted; 9. National Reference Laboratory for detection of Avian Influenza virus and other emerging diseases would be established; and 10. National Avian Flu Preparedness Plan would be implemented. 4. 3Veterinary Services and Animal Health Inadequate veterinary services are one of the major obstacles for livestock development in Bangladesh. The ratio of Veterinary Surgeons to farm animals and birds was estimated at I: 1. 7 million in 1995, and according to a 2003 estimate only 5-10 percent of farm animals receive routine vaccination. Private sector investment in the animal health sector remains low and is only expanding slowly .The quality and quantity of vaccines produced and delivered by the DLS are inadequate. The use of subsidies in vaccine production in present form is a possible deterrent to private investors. There is no. Independent authority to check the quality of domestically produced or imported vaccines. Vaccination is done in a haphazard manner without any strategic plan for controlling the targeted diseases. There are no provisions for movement control and quarantine during disease outbreak or epidemics. No registration is required for feed additives such as toxins binder, antibiotics, and vitamin- mineral premixes, animal protein, many of which are potentially detrimental to human health.Most of the drugs traders and shop keepers have no formal training on drug handling, transportation, storing and dispensing, and readily sell drugs such as antibiotics, hormones, and sedatives across the counter without prescription. Disease diagnostic facilities are limited. The DVH (District Veterinary H ospitals), Regional FDIL (Field Diseases Investigation Laboratories), and the CDIL (Central Disease Investigation Laboratory of DLS are responsible for providing diagnostic services. However, due to shortage of skilled manpower and non-availability of funds they cannot provide the intended services. There IS no provision for residue analysis of drugs, heavy metals, hormones, pesticides and toxins in foods of animal origin.There are only few local veterinarians trained in clinical pathology to diagnose diseases properly. The disease surveillance system is almost non-existent. Ã¢â¬ËThe Veterinary Public Health Unit in the DLS has the mandate to perform diagnosis, surveillance and control of zoonotic diseases, ensure food safety of animal origin, and liaison with the Health Department. The Unit is however, suffering from serious shortages of human capital, funding and laboratory facilities. It has no legal framework to implement its mandate. Coordination between animal and human heal th bodies is virtually non-existent. Veterinary research is similarly constrained due to shortages of staff and funds.Very limited fund is available for veterinary research. There are important areas of public goods services like veterinary epidemiology, veterinary public health, food safety and diagnostic techniques within which research needs to be expanded urgently. The Animal Quarantine Act was recently passed by the Parliament, but quarantine stations, manpower and funds to enforce the Act are not in place yet. Laws and Regulations are essential for high quality service delivery and quality assurance of products for trade. Some laws and regulations are in place but overall regulatory framework and implementation remain very weak. Policy framework for Veterinary Services and Animal Health: 1.Soft loans would be provided to accelerate the development of private veterinary services; 2. Community-based veterinary service would be developed through special projects; 3. An autonomous Quality Control Agency would be established to ensure quality of veterinary drugs, vaccines, feeds, feed ingredients and breeding tools and materials; 4. A licensing system for veterinary pharmacists and a quality monitoring system of veterinary services would be introduced; 5. Veterinary research would be strengthened in critical areas, particularly those related to provision of public goods and services; 6. Veterinary public health services would be strengthened and closer linkages with the Department of Health would be established; 7.Capacities of disease investigation network of DLS would be strengthened for disease surveillance, quarantine services and emergency planning to manage major disease outbreaks including Avian Influenza and other emerging diseases; 8. Specific strategy would be developed for controlling economically important trans-boundary animal diseases; 9. Veterinary Council would be strengthened to help ensure quality veterinary services; 10. Ã¢â¬Å"National Liv estock Health Disaster CommitteeÃ¢â¬ would be formed including all trade organizations to combat such crisis; 11. A separate Ã¢â¬Å"Veterinary CellÃ¢â¬ would be established in Department of Drug Administration for facilitating decision making on veterinary drug registration and approval in Bangladesh. Animal Health Companies Association and related trade association would be included in the committee to represent the private sector. 12.Promote and encourage private sector to set-up compliant veterinary diagnostic center, clinics and hospitals to cater the needs of the farmers and other beneficiaries. 4. 4Feeds and Animal Management The acute shol1age of feeds and fodder is one of the single most impOJ1ant obstacles to livestock development in Bangladesh. The main constraints for feeds and feed management include: (i) shortage of feeds and fodder; (ii) scarcity of land for fodder production; (iii) seasonal fluctuations of feeds and fodder; (iv) low quality feed; (v) high feed p rices; and (vi) poor husbandry practices. Feed resources for large livestock are primarily derived from crop residues and cereal by- products as well as grasses, tree leaves and aquatic plants.Very little grain is available for animals. Feed concentrates contribute only a small portion of the feed. Feed resources for scavenging rural poultry comprise scattered grains from threshing floors, left over grains, pulses, broken rice, kitchen wastes, green grasses, insects, worms, left over boiled rice, etc. Because of increasing demand for human food land is intensively used for cereal production. Neither sufficient grazing land, nor spare land is available for growing fodder. This has resulted in shortages of quality forage for ruminant livestock, causing stunted growth, reproduction problems, reduced lactation, working inability, lower growth rates, and reduced productivity.Most of the dairy and poultry farmers are facing the problem of adulterated and inferior quality of commercial fee ds and feed ingredients. Feed labeling and control is inadequate. Most feed millers do not disclose the necessary information on the packaging with regards to feed composition, ingredients, date of manufacturing, date of expiry, storage guidelines, energy levels, and protein and vitamin contents. Feed millers are widely suspected of minimizing feed production costs either by use of inferior quality ingredients and/or inclusion of lower proportions of high value ingredients. Poor packaging materials contribute to reduced quality and shelf life. Policy framework for Feeds and Animal Management: 1.Feed and fodder development strategy would be developed for community- based fodder cultivation along roads and highways, rivers and embankments, in Khas lands, and in combinations with crops; 2. Necessary support would be provided to the private sector for utilization and promotion of crop residues, agro-industrial by-products and unconventional feed resources as animal feed; 3. An Animal Fe ed Act would be approved and implemented to ensure feed quality; and 4. Resources would be provided for training of dairy farmers on improved animal management and husbandry practices. 5. Organizational support system development for coordination of support services for smallholder dairy development in private sector; . Private sector support system development for strengthening manufacturing and marketing of feed and feed additives; 7. Human resource development. 4. 5Breeds Development Livestock development through the application of science-led methods of breeds and breeding in Bangladesh is still at a rudimentary stage. There is however enthusiasm for applying breeds and breeding interventions to enhance livestock performance. Lack of a national breeding policy, use of inappropriate breeds, weak infrastructure (human capacity, national service delivery, breeding farms), and limited technical knowledge has constrained the development of improved breeds.Available high yielding seed materials (in cattle and chicken industry) are mostly exotic and imported. However, not all of these imported exotic species adapt well under Bangladesh climatic conditions. There are a number of promising well-adapted native livestock breeds in the country (e. g. Red Chittagong cattle, Black Bengal goat, Bengal sheep, Naked Neck chicken etc), which could be developed into high yielding breeds through cross breeding in a systematic manner. Importation of inappropriate genetic material coupled with indiscriminate crossbreeding and a clear neglect of indigenous breeds has created a situation, where a number of native breeds of livestock are under threat of extinction.Unplanned and sporadic attempts that were made for breed improvement of various species failed, because the initiatives were not based on thorough breed/ genotype testing results and not based on well-thought out and sound breeding goals, breeding criteria, animal recording systems, animal evaluation procedures, and anim al selection and mating plans. Breeds and breeding program inherently requires heavy initial investments and regular and timely flow of resources. Sustained funding support for breeding work has not been forthcoming. As a result, the limited expertise available in this field remains underutilized. There is no regulatory body or national Breeding Act to regulate breed imports, prices of breeding materials, merits and quality of breeds, breeding materials and breeding services. Within the existing cattle breeding services (including artificial insemination), farmers have little or no idea of the merit and quality of the semen being provided for insemination.The same is true for other species such as goats and buffaloes, and applies also to imported germplasm (live animals, semen, embryos, etc). Policy framework for Breeds Development: 1. A National Breeding Program would be finalized and approved; 2. Conservation and utilization program of potential indigenous breeds for poor smallhol ders in the pertinent locality would be developed; 3. A comprehensive human resource development program in animal breeding would be developed; 4. Frozen semen production unit would be established for wide scale artificial insemination of Black Bengal Goats to face the challenge of service storage of proven buck throughout the country; 5. Breeders AssociationÃ¢â¬â¢ would be established for monitoring and coordination of livestock breeding activities in the country. 4. 6Hides and Skins Leather including crust as well as finished leather and leather goods is an important export earner contributing about 6 to 7 percent of total export earnings. A large proportion of leather materials are however downgraded and rejected due to poor quality. Leather defects are reported to be responsible for a more than 50 percent cut in the value of leather. Cattle and goats are the major skin and hide producing species followed by buffalo and sheep. Most slaughtering takes place with inadequate facil ities for electricity, water, and sewerage.There are an estimated 192 improvised slaughter houses at district level, 1215 at Upazila level and more than 3,000 slaughtering points in hats and bazaars as well as by road sides of cities and towns. Hides are in most cases removed by unskilled persons using inappropriate tools, giving rise to irregular shapes and flay cuts. Defects in goat and sheep skins have been significantly reduced in recent years with the introduction of hang and pull systems of flaying. Besides hides and skins, the slaughtering of animals generates potentially valuable by- products including blood, bones, hoofs, rumen and visceral contents, hairs, etc. Only a part of certain by-products, generated mainly in organized slaughter houses, are collected and processed by cottage level factories.Most of these by-products are discarded and thrown away, resulting in large economic losses and environmental pollution. Tannery operations are further impacting negatively on th e environment. Financing is a major problem, particularly the primary market intermediaries like farias and beparis suffer due to lack of adequate working capital and inadequate access to finance. The shortage of capital reduces the purchasing capacity of intermediaries and consequently, a large quantity of hides and skins are pilfered in the neighbouring country, especially during Eid-ul-Azha. Ful1hennore, prices drop during Eid-ul-Azha, when large quantities of hides and skins are produced.The low prices in turn provide little incentive for proper flaying, handling and preservation. Policy framework for Hides and Skins: 1. Butchers and merchants (Farias, Beparis and Aratdars) would be trained on basic knowledge of flaying, curing and storing for improved management and quality of hides and skins; 2. An autonomous agency would be established for quality control and cet1ification of hides and skins; 3. Environmental legislation on slaughter and tannery operations would be framed and enforced; 4. Private sector would be encouraged to establish small to medium scale industries to utilize slaughter and tannery by-products for producing high quality feed supplement for animal feeds; and 5.Access to micro-finance and banking facilities would be improved for intermediaries. 4. 7Marketing of Livestock Products Milk: There is no systematic marketing network and market information system for milk and milk products to support smallholder dairy farmers in the rural areas. Farmers sell milk either in the local market or to goal as (traditional milk collectors) who continue to render useful services to the rural community, and sometimes work as supplying agents to private firms. Commercial marketing of milk started in the late 1970s by Milk Vita. Milk Vita has established milk-processing plants in various places and collects milk from its cooperatives members.BRAC, Pran and CLDDP (Community Livestock and Dairy Development Project) have also recently installed milk processi ng, and a small number of other private farms are dealing with pasteurized milk. These enterprises however, only cover a part of the country. Most small-scale dairy farmers in rural areas sell their milk in local markets at around a third to half of the price at which milk is sold in the cities. Low prices and price fluctuations are found to be important constraints to increased production and higher income of milk producers. Milk production costs are largely determined by feed prices (wheat and rice bran), which are increasing, in some cases rapidly. Meat: There is a high demand for meat in the local markets. In the past, the beef price was relatively low due the ready supply of cattle from neighbouring country.The supply has recently been restricted and as a result meat prices have increased sharply. Constraints to long-term development of the beef industry include lack of improved breeds, low meat quality, and limited access to credit and insurance amongst smallholders. Eggs: The egg marketing system can be characterized as oligopolistic, under control of the Aratdars who extend credit to the poultry farmers who in turn are obliged to sell through the Aratdars for loan repayment. The price of eggs in large city markets is usually not known to the rural poultry farmers The time and distance from collection to marketing is often long with traditional means of transportation. Spoilage and broken eggs are commonPolicy framework for Marketing of Livestock Products: 1. Farmers groups and cooperatives formation would be encouraged and supported for collective marketing of livestock products by community based organizations and associations; 2. Access to micro-finance and insurance schemes for poor smallholders including women would be improved; 3. Farmer's information network for price data and processing of trade related information would be established with private sector support; 4. An Internet-based communication system would be established alongside regular b roadcasting of trade related information and monitoring and forecasting of prices of livestock products; 5.Management Information Systems (MIS) would be established in the DLS on livestock product marketing; 6. Government if required will intervene the market to ensure minimum price of egg and meat for farmers; 7. Private sector would be encouraged to be involved in egg processing and other value added product manufacturing industries. 4. 8International Trade Management In order to derive the full benefits of globalization and trade liberalization, Bangladesh must further develop its export products to satisfy product standard requirements of importing countries and obtain up-to-date information from different markets. Bangladesh is signatory of the WTO (World Trade Organization) Agreement on Agriculture (AOA).The AOA provides a framework for the long-term reforms of agriculture trade and domestic policies to move forwards market orientation in agricultural trade. The obligations an d disciplines incorporated in the AOA relate to four aspects, viz, i) agreement on market access; ii) agreement on domestic support; iii) agreement on export competition/subsidy; and iv) agreement on SPS (sanitary and phytosanitary) measures. Bangladesh is not fully able to meet the recommended safety and quality standards for livestock products consistent with the SPS guidelines as regulated by the World Animal Health Organization (OIE) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission.The main problem stem from: (i) inadequate veterinary services; (ii) lack of skilled human resources; (iii) lack of diagnostic facilities; (iv) lack of financial support; (v) lack of disease surveillance and monitoring of animal health; (vi) lack of updated food legislation; and (vii) need for an improved national food export inspection and certification program. Incidences of TADs (trans-boundary animal diseases), such as foot and mouth disease, are preventing Bangladesh from entering potential markets for live stock products. As the problem of TADs is being addressed on a larger scale, regional initiatives are becoming important and Bangladesh will seek the opportunity to enter into regional agreements to control TAOs.This will necessitate significant changes in the veterinary service system, particularly within diagnostic services and veterinary public health. Most export-oriented enterprises are small and medium size, with limited capacity to undertake market research, invest in technologies, and collect, store, and process trade information. Other important challenges relate to meeting labour and environmental standards, improving design and packaging, and accessing and using up-to-date information on consumer preferences and trends in global markets. Many enterprises have neither the in-house capacity to gather the necessary trade-related information nor the networks to access such information. Policy framework for International Trade Management: 1.Focal points would be set up in the OLS and the MoFL (Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock) to deal with the international and regional trade agreements and ensure implementation of notifications and obligations; 2. Training would be provided to the officials in the OLS, MoFL and livestock related industries to enable them to fully appreciate and deal effectively with international and regional trade agreements; 3. Requirements of trade related technical assistance for the DLS, MoFL and private exporters would be assessed and required assistance would be provided; 4. The capacity of DLS would be developed through institutional reform to address SPS and HACCP requirements; 5. An Internet-based communication system would be established to facilitate international market networking for livestock products; 6.MIS (management information systems) would be established in the OLS and MoFL for international trade management of livestock products; and 7. Private sector people would be included with all activities of internationa l trade management. 4. 9Access to Credit and Insurance Credit The effective coverage of micro credit programs in Bangladesh was around II million households in 2002 of which around 80% were below poverty line. It is estimated that less than a fifth of the total micro credit disbursed by NGOs till June 200 I, was given to the livestock sub-sector mostly to poor women in rural areas. Financing of agricultural and other rural economic activities have not in the past attracted adequate interest of banks and institutional lenders.As recently as 2003 livestock attracted less than 5% of the total credit disbursed in the agricultural sector by state-owned lending institutions, although the trend in recent years has been sharply upwards. The livestock development has accelerated the demand for concentrate feeds, drugs, vaccines, and veterinary services. These trends are expected to continue in the coming years with resultant increases in demand for credit support. Expansion of livestock oper ations among poor smallholders and commercial livestock producers, as well as input suppliers (feed mills, drug producers, etc. ) and processors of livestock products is thus expected to increase the demand tor finance throughout the sub-sector, and will be needed to help facilitate continued horizontal and vertical integration.The following constraints and challenges in particular characterize the micro-credit sector: (i) insufficient funds; (ii) inappropriately packaged loans for production cycles of livestock; (iii) red tape and collateral requirements effectively reducing credit access for smallholders, notably the poor; (iv) inadequate loan supervision; (v) insufficient training in financial management and business planning (applies to both loan providers and takers); (vi) inadequate technical support; (vi) inappropriate interest rate policies and practices; (vii) conflicts of interest within NGOs providing both technical and credit support often to the detriment of the former; (viii) smallholder vulnerability and risk from natural and man-made disasters; and (ix) better servicing of the hard-core poor. Policy framework for Increasing Access to Credit: 1.Formation of CBOs (Community Based Organisations) linking them with DLS, NGOs, commercial banks, and insurance companies would be encouraged for delivery of appropriate livestock credit packages to the doorstep of small scale livestock farmers including poor women; 2. A Livestock Credit Fund would be established in the Bangladesh Bank for distribution of subsidized credit to small scale livestock farmers through CBOs; 3. Micro-finance packages better tailored to the production cycles of various livestock species would be promoted; 4. Micro-finance packages targeted towards and appropriate for the hard-core poor including women would be promoted; 5. Training would be provided to smallholder groups in livestock-related business planning and financial management; 6. Monitoring and supervision of micro financ e institutions would be enhanced for adherence to international best practice; and 7.Provision of micro-finance services from technical services would be separated where necessary for clearer regulation. Insurance Livestock production is subject to the risks of animal disease, accident, and death. The result is often a serious decline in farm income and consequent failure on the pa11 of especially poorer farmers to maintain their livelihoods. Livestock insurance can: i) provide protection against loss of livestock from accident or disease, stabilizing income; ii) raise credit worthiness; iii) contribute to a reduction in the incidences of animal death and accident by requiring certification of a minimum standard of animal husbandry practices; and iv) encourage development of cattle breeding and dairy industries.Out of 62 insurance companies in Bangladesh, 60 are private companies of which none are involved in livestock insurance. Only a state owned insurance company, SBC (Sadharan B ima Corporation) has since 1980 been providing livestock insurance. It covers only projects financed by BKB (Bangladesh Krishi Bank) and other nationalized Commercial Banks. SBC insured 7. 567 dairy animals between 1981 and 2003, indicating only very negligible insurance coverage for livestock. No modifications of the SBC insurance program have been made since 1985 to address the changing scenarios in the dairy and poultry industries. There are at present none or only very few private sector companies with the skills or funds to initiate livestock insurance.There are no collaborative arrangements between insurance companies and public sector organizations to assist the companies in setting up insurance schemes. Milk Vita and CLDDP have developed a self-insurance scheme for their cooperative members and farmer groups/associations, which appears to be working well, Smallholders may not, however yet fully recognize and appreciate the implications and potential benefits of livestock ins urance. Experience suggests that some level of subsidy for smallholder livestock enterprises may be necessary, at least during the initial period. Policy framework for Increasing Access to Livestock Insurance: 1. In consultation with insurance companies, CBOs and NGOs and other stakeholders, a strategy for expansion of livestock insurance coverage would be developed; 2.A Livestock Insurance Development Fund would be established in the Bangladesh Bank, 3. Self-insurance systems for poor smallholders including women through community-based livestock development programmes would be promoted; 4. A national database on livestock mortality, disease incidence and productivity of livestock would be developed and maintained at the DLS; 5. Awareness among smallholders on the benefits of livestock insurance schemes would be raised; and 6. Successful experiences of insurance models of other countries in the region would be studied and emulated. 4. 10Institutional Development for Research and Ex tension Livestock ResearchTo carry out livestock research in the public sector BLRI (Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute) was established under a Presidential Ordinance in 1984 as a semi-autonomous body. It is organized into eight research divisions and an administrative division, called the support service division. The research divisions are: (i) Animal Production; (ii) Poultry Production; (iii) Animal Health; (iv) System Research; (v) Socio-economics; (vi) Goat and Sheep Production; (vii) Biotechnology; and (viii) Planning, Training and Technology Demonstration. The 1984 Ordinance was amended in 1996 as an Act in line with the amendment of the Act of the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC).The functions of BLRI are not sharply focused and its structure has a number of deficiencies. There are many important new issues that are not reflected in the functions. Dramatic changes that have taken place in recent years within Bangladesh and internationally (globalization and trade liberalization combined with WTO regulations and OIE requirements), which have changed both domestic and the international market scenarios. In the context of these changes, the functions of BLRI need to be sharpened. Major deficiencies exist in veterinary research, planning and management, human resource management, and information management. There is no Unit and staff to deal with planning, evaluation and monitoring.Veterinary research is done only on a limited scale under the Animal Health Division, There is no provision of a Director (Research), responsible for research planning, coordinating and monitoring the implementation of research projects; evaluating and reporting research outputs on a regular basis; and maintaining direct contact with DLS and sister research institutions, as well as liaison with other concerned Depal1ments. There is no management information system (MIS) for research at BLRI and Information management is generally weak. The shortage of operat ing funds for research is acute in BLRI. The annual allocation shows a declining trend in real terms. BLRI has been entirely depending on the development budget and contract research grants from BARC (also under development projects) for carrying out research.This has restricted BLRI in developing and undertaking meaningful research programs to support the poverty reduction program of the Government. BLRI has problems with training of its personnel. There is no provision for staff training or a built-in system of carrier progression within the research divisions like in the research institutes in the crop sector. This has created a high rate of attrition of qualified scientists. Policy framework for Livestock Research: 1. Research capacity of BLRI headquarters and its Regional Stations would be enhanced to address national priority and untapped potential regional livestock resources; 2. Private and NGO initiatives in livestock research would be encouraged and supported; 3.The mandat e, functions and structure of BLRI would be sharpened including provision of a Director (Research), with a view to enhance the capacity to coordinate, maintain liaison with other concerned Departments; and conduct livestock research for pro-poor sustainable development; 4. Research capacity of BLRI would be extended to ensure safe production of animal products and by-products, animal protein supplement, feed additives, premixes, probiotics and mineral and vitamin supplements as inputs for poultry and livestock development; 5. The Act of BLRI would be amended to give greater autonomy to the Management Board and the Institute to bring it at a par with the crop research institutes; 6.Enabling environment should be created to develop quality manpower to undertake challenges for emerging livestock resource development in the context of global reformation; 7. Service structure and rules of business would be framed for BLRI to improve its management and to provide career development opport unities for talented scientists; 8. Research budget of BLRI would be increased to 40 per cent of its total annual budget. to meet the research operating costs. Livestock Extension For the extension of Livestock Services the Directorate of Livestock Services was established in 1960 and renamed as the Department of Livestock Services (DLS) in the late 1980s.Since 1960, the mandate and functions, structure, organization and management systems of DLS have remained almost unchanged. DLS is organized into five divisions, headed by their respective Directors: (i) Animal Health and Administration; (ii) Research, Training and Evaluation; (iii) Extension; (iv) Officers Training Institute; and (v) Production. The divisions are functionally split into sections to deal with different subject matters. Other entities of DLS include a LRI (Livestock Research Institute), a CDIL (Central Disease Investigation Laboratory), 7 FDIL (Field Disease Investigation Laboratories), a CVH (Central Veterinary Ho spital), and 64 DVH (District Veterinary Hospitals).DLS has a number of training facilities such as the OTIs (Officers Training Institute) and VTI (Veterinary Training Institutes) and LTI (Livestock Training Institute), but remain grossly underutilized due to lack of funds. The structure of DLS offers insufficient focus on the issues that matter most. The functional Divisions are not structured in a logical fashion. Elements of veterinary services are scattered throughout different divisions/sections and function in an uncoordinated manner. The Veterinary Public Health Section exists but is neither equipped nor does it have the funds to deal adequately with disease surveillance and reporting, food safety and control of zoonotic diseases, and other public health issues. It has no linkages to the Health Department and the Public Health Institute.It also does not have a supporting legal framework to implement its mandate. Almost nothing is done on disease surveillance, including trans- boundary diseases. The major challenges facing DLS were identified as: (i) inappropriate mandate and functions; (ii) structural and organizational deficiencies; (iii) frontline services at the Upazila level is thin and weak; (iv) weak linkages with research organization including BLRI; (v) weak management system and MIS (management information system; (vi) slow recruitment and promotion system; (vii) shortage of skilled manpower; (viii) lack of regular skill development training; and (ix) limited budget allocation.In the context of increasing participation by the private sector and NGOs in livestock development, there is an urgent need to redefine the mandate and functions of DLS in a fashion that will allow it to gradually withdraw from private goods services, engage increasingly in delivery of public goods services viz. disease surveillance and reporting, food safety, enforcement of . laws and regulations, and quality control of feeds/drugs/vaccines/semen and breeding materials an d facilitate private sector involvement. Policy framework for Livestock Extension: 1. Private sector, NGOs, and CBOs would be encouraged to provide private goods livestock services, viz. veterinary services, vaccination etc 2. DLS would be reformed to enhance its role as a provider of public goods services viz. regulatory measures, quality assurance and control, monitoring function, food safety function, disease surveillance, etc. ; 3.Livestock extension services frontline would be extended up to Union level in stages to make it available close to villages; 4. Resource allocations to DLS would be increased to make it effective in delivery of public goods services; 5. Autonomous unit/institute would be established for quality assurance and certification of livestock products, vaccines and biologics, and consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s rights protection; 6. Retraining program would be developed and implemented to equip DLS staffs with new knowledge and skills within the framework of a clearly defin ed human resource development action plan; 7. Besides staff training, DLS training institutes would be opened for all eligible candidates from private sector, NGOs and CBOs for livestock services extension training. 8.A special cell in all DVH would ensure round the clock service for emergency purpose. 9. DVH would further extend to TVH (Thana Veterinary Hospital) to ensure better service & protection of the animal population, and 10. Extension-research-NGO linkage would be strengthened for field testing and dissemination of livestock technologies. 5. Implementation Strategy of the National Livestock Development Policy The implementation strategy would be to provide support that will specifically target factor productivity, investments and risks as follows: a. Public investment would be increased in livestock infrastructure to provide public goods and services delivery, and promoting private investment; b.Public investment would also be increased in livestock research for technologi cal innovations to enhance productivity, income, employment; c. Market regulatory measures would be taken to shifts in relative prices of inputs and outputs to correct market distortions, rationalize the incentive structures for investment and mitigate negative impacts on environment; d. An appropriate legal and regulatory framework would be put in place; and e. Institutional reforms would be carried out and good sectoral governance would be put in place making both public and private sectors more transparent, accountable and mutually supportive. Policy framework for dairy development is: Cooperative dairy development (Milk Vita model) would be expanded in potential areas allover the country; Ã¢â¬ ¢Successful pro-poor models for community-based smallholder dairy development including appropriate contact farming schemes would be replicated; Ã¢â¬ ¢Smallholder dairy farming, integrated with crop and fish culture would be promoted; Ã¢â¬ ¢Supply chain based production, processing and marketing of milk and milk products would be promoted; Ã¢â¬ ¢A National Dairy Development Board would be established as a regulatory body to promote dairy development; Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã¢â¬Å"National Dairy Research InstituteÃ¢â¬ would be established to carryout research in various aspects of dairying. Policy framework for meat production: Animal Slaughter Act, Animal Feed Act and Animal Disease Act would be approved and enforced in order to promote hygienic production of quality meat; Ã¢â¬ ¢Butchers would be trained on scientific methods of slaughtering, meat processing and preservation techniques; Ã¢â¬ ¢Development of beef breeds for increased productivity at farm level; Ã¢â¬ ¢Development of backward and forward linkage system to help improvement of existing cattle fattening system into private enterprises; Ã¢â¬ ¢Private sector would be encouraged to establish mechanized slaughter houses with Static Flaying Frame in Divisional cities; and Local Government would be encouraged to esta blish slaughter slabs in municipality and Upazila headquarters; Ã¢â¬ ¢Production of Black Bengal Goats would be promoted by ensuring disease prevention, availability of quality bucks and semen for artificial insemination, and knowledge transfer through special projects; Ã¢â¬ ¢Buffalo and sheep farming would be developed in selected high potential areas through special projects. Policy framework or Poultry Development: Ã¢â¬ ¢Successful pro-poor models would be replicated for semi-scavenging poultry development; Ã¢â¬ ¢Formation of poultry smallholder groups, CBOs, and producers associations would be facilitated; Ã¢â¬ ¢Quality control of poultry feeds and feed ingredients would be ensured through establishment of a legal body and enforcement of regulations; Ã¢â¬ ¢Production and consumption of safe (antibiotic residue free) including organic meat and eggs would be promoted; Ã¢â¬ ¢Criteria and guidelines would be established to ensure supply of quality day-old chicks; Ã¢â¬ ¢Speci fic guidelines would be developed and enforced for stablishing environment-friendly commercial poultry farms; Small commercial farms would be converted into profit oriented large farms following cooperative system. Ã¢â¬ ¢Poultry farms of the DLS would be utilized as breeding and multiplication farms / centres for smallholder training, technology testing and demonstration etc Ã¢â¬ ¢Smallholder production and marketing of ducks and minor poultry species (e. g. Quail, Goose, Pigeon, Guinea fowl) in selected areas would be promoted; Ã¢â¬ ¢National Reference Laboratory for detection of Avian Influenza virus and other emerging diseases would be established; and Ã¢â¬ ¢National Avian Flu Preparedness Plan would be implemented.Policy framework for Veterinary Services and Animal Health: Ã¢â¬ ¢Soft loans would be provided to accelerate the development of private veterinary services; Ã¢â¬ ¢Community-based veterinary service would be developed through special projects; Ã¢â¬ ¢An autonomous Quality Control Agency would be established to ensure quality of veterinary drugs, vaccines, feeds, feed ingredients and breeding tools and materials; Ã¢â¬ ¢A licensing system for veterinary pharmacists and a quality monitoring system of veterinary services would be introduced; Ã¢â¬ ¢Veterinary research would be strengthened in critical areas, particularly those related to provision of public goods and services; Ã¢â¬ ¢Veterinary public health services would be strengthened and closer linkages with the Department of Health would be established; Ã¢â¬ ¢Capacities of disease investigation network of DLS would be strengthened for disease surveillance, quarantine services and emergency planning to manage major disease outbreaks including Avian Influenza and other emerging diseases; Ã¢â¬ ¢Specific strategy would be developed for controlling economically important trans-boundary animal diseases; Ã¢â¬ ¢Veterinary Council would be strengthened to help ensure quality veterinary services ; Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã¢â¬Å"National Livestock Health Disaster CommitteeÃ¢â¬ would be formed including all trade organizations to combat such crisis; Ã¢â¬ ¢A separate Ã¢â¬Å"Veterinary CellÃ¢â¬ would be established in Department of Drug Administration for facilitating decision making on veterinary drug registration and approval in Bangladesh. Animal Health Companies Association and related trade association would be included in the committee to represent the private sector. Ã¢â¬ ¢Promote and encourage private sector to set-up compliant veterinary diagnostic center, clinics and hospitals to cater the needs of the farmers and other beneficiaries. Policy framework for Feeds and Animal Management: Feed and fodder development strategy would be developed for community- based fodder cultivation along roads and highways, rivers and embankments, in Khas lands, and in combinations with crops; Ã¢â¬ ¢Necessary support would be provided to the private sector for utilization and promotion of crop re sidues, agro-industrial by-products and unconventional feed resources as animal feed; Ã¢â¬ ¢An Animal Feed Act would be approved and implemented to ensure feed quality; and Ã¢â¬ ¢ Resources would be provided for training of dairy farmers on improved animal management and husbandry practices. Ã¢â¬ ¢Organizational support system development for coordination of support services for smallholder dairy development in private sector; Ã¢â¬ ¢Private sector support system development for strengthening manufacturing and marketing of feed and feed additives; Ã¢â¬ ¢Human resource development. Policy framework for Breeds Development: A National Breeding Program would be finalized and approved; Ã¢â¬ ¢Conservation and utilization program of potential indigenous breeds for poor smallholders in the pertinent locality would be developed; Ã¢â¬ ¢A comprehensive human resource development program in animal breeding would be developed; Ã¢â¬ ¢Frozen semen production unit would be established for wi de scale artificial insemination of Black Bengal Goats to face the challenge of service storage of proven buck throughout the country; Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã¢â¬ËBreeders AssociationÃ¢â¬â¢ would be established for monitoring and coordination of livestock breeding activities in the country. Policy framework for Marketing of Livestock Products: Farmers groups and cooperatives formation would be encouraged and supported for collective marketing of livestock products by community based organizations and associations; Ã¢â¬ ¢Access to micro-finance and insurance schemes for poor smallholders including women would be improved; Ã¢â¬ ¢Farmer's information network for price data and processing of trade related information would be established with private sector support; Ã¢â¬ ¢An Internet-based communication system would be established alongside regular broadcasting of trade related information and monitoring and forecasting of prices of livestock products; Ã¢â¬ ¢Management Information Systems (MIS) would be established in the DLS on livestock product marketing; Ã¢â¬ ¢Government if required will intervene the market to ensure minimum price of egg and meat for farmers; Ã¢â¬ ¢Private sector would be encouraged to be involved in egg processing and other value added product manufacturing industries. Policy framework for Livestock Research: Research capacity of BLRI headquarters and its Regional Stations would be enhanced to address national priority and untapped potential regional livestock resources; Ã¢â¬ ¢Private and NGO initiatives in livestock research would be encouraged and supported; Ã¢â¬ ¢The mandate, functions and structure of BLRI would be sharpened including provision of a Director (Research), with a view to enhance the capacity to coordinate, maintain liaison with other concerned Departments; and conduct livestock research for pro-poor sustainable development; Ã¢â¬ ¢Research capacity of BLRI would be extended to ensure safe production of animal products and by-pro ducts, animal protein supplement, feed additives, premixes, probiotics and mineral and vitamin supplements as inputs for poultry and livestock development; Ã¢â¬ ¢The Act of BLRI would be amended to give greater autonomy to the Management Board and the Institute to bring it at a par with the crop research institutes; Ã¢â¬ ¢Enabling environment should be created to develop quality manpower to undertake challenges for emerging livestock resource development in the context of global reformation; Ã¢â¬ ¢Service structure and rules of business would be framed for BLRI to improve its management and to provide career development opportunities for talented scientists; Ã¢â¬ ¢Research budget of BLRI would be increased to 40 per cent of its total annual budget. to meet the research operating costs. Policy framework for Livestock Extension: Ã¢â¬ ¢Private sector, NGOs, and CBOs would be encouraged to provide private goods livestock services, viz. veterinary services, vaccination etc Ã¢â¬ ¢DL S would be reformed to enhance its role as a provider of public goods services viz. regulatory measures, quality assurance and control, monitoring function, food safety function, disease surveillance, etc. ; Ã¢â¬ ¢Livestock extension ervices frontline would be extended up to Union level in stages to make it available close to villages; Ã¢â¬ ¢Resource allocations to DLS would be increased to make it effective in delivery of public goods services; Ã¢â¬ ¢Autonomous unit/institute would be established for quality assurance and certification of livestock products, vaccines and biologics, and consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s rights protection; Ã¢â¬ ¢Retraining program would be developed and implemented to equip DLS staffs with new knowledge and skills within the framework of a clearly defined human resource development action plan; Ã¢â¬ ¢Besides staff training, DLS training institutes would be opened for all eligible candidates from private sector, NGOs and CBOs for livestock services extension tra ining. Ã¢â¬ ¢A special cell in all DVH would ensure round the clock service for emergency purpose. Ã¢â¬ ¢DVH would further extend to TVH (Thana Veterinary Hospital) to ensure better service & protection of the animal population, and Ã¢â¬ ¢Extension-research-NGO linkage would be strengthened for field testing and dissemination of livestock technologies.Implementation Strategy of the National Livestock Development Policy Ã¢â¬ ¢The implementation strategy would be to provide support that will specifically target factor productivity, investments and risks as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢Public investment would be increased in livestock infrastructure to provide public goods and services delivery, and promoting private investment; Ã¢â¬ ¢Public investment would also be increased in livestock research for technological innovations to enhance productivity, income, employment; Ã¢â¬ ¢Market regulatory measures would be taken to shifts in relative prices of inputs and outputs to correct market distor tions, rationalize the incentive structures for investment and mitigate negative impacts on environment; Ã¢â¬ ¢An appropriate legal and regulatory framework would be put in place; and Ã¢â¬ ¢Institutional reforms would be carried out and good sectoral governance would be put in place making both public and private sectors more transparent, accountable and mutually supportive.
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
User Psychology How to Make Your Content Strategy More Effective We spend every single day making decisions. We like to think these decisions are simply choices- from getting dressed to eating dinner, or even small things like which toothpaste to buy- all driven by logic and reason. In truth, the majority of human decision-making is initially influenced by everything butÃ logic. A complex web of autonomic emotions, desires, and rewards fuels our every choice, and these feelings are ultimately what guide us throughout life. From a marketing perspective, this offers a powerful opportunity to generate a sense of desire and need around our products. But it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough to simply test or utilize historical data to find out what motivates people. To create desirable products, we must leverage user psychology- a method of understanding the howÃ and whyÃ consumers make decisions. Armed with this kind knowledge, it becomes possible to create a content marketing strategyÃ that taps into customer desires and makes our products truly irresistible. How to Make Content Strategy More Effective With User PsychologyApply User Psychology to Your Content Ideas With This Template Later in this post, well cover how to brainstorm emotionally-driven content ideas that connect desires to rewards. But first, download this template to store those ideas, so youll be ready once we reach that point. Why User Psychology Matters User psychology is aimed at understanding subconscious triggers- automatic feelings that we associate with products, services, and experiences. Since triggers influence consumers at every stage of the buying cycle, learning more about them can bridge the gap between basic marketing and effective consumer influencing. Unlike traditional marketing, psychology-driven marketing doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t attempt to influence consumers through product features, price or value propositions. So instead of asking questions like, Ã¢â¬Å"How can I boost newsletter signups?Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"What piece of content is most shareable?Ã¢â¬ user psychology prompts questions like: What deep desires influence a customer to consider buying our product? When in the buying cycle does our customer feel unsure or abandon our web page? What prompted that feeling of uncertainty? What feelings arise when customers encounter our brand, and how can we strengthen them (or relieve them if theyÃ¢â¬â¢re negative)? The core difference between traditional marketing and psychology-driven marketing is that the latter prompts marketers to think from the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view. Understanding ELMR Effective user psychology strategies are often built upon some variation of the ELMR framework. ELMR, which stands for Emotion, Logic, Motivation, and Reward, helps you see things from the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, and was first coined by Brian Balfour as part of the ReforgeÃ growth series. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to first understand what each of these terms mean, before we can see how they can be applied to a content marketing strategy. Use the ELMR framework to infuse user psychology into your #content #marketing strategy:Emotion We cannot understand customer emotions without first understanding desire. Think of it this way: If a person is happy, it means one of their desires has been fulfilled. If a person is sad, it means theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve lost or missed out on something they desire. When marketers create messaging that fulfills desire, customers are more likely to associate that product with happiness and joy. As a result, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re more likely to make a purchase. Logic The next portion of the ELMR framework is logic. After someone has an emotional response to something, theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll look to rationalize their emotions with a logical reason. Educating a customer about a product's facts, features and competitive details are all ways to appeal to the logical brain and make a customer more confident in their decision. Motivation To motivate someone, we first need to learn whatÃ¢â¬â¢s preventing them from taking the desired action. How large and influential are these barriers? What can be done to make them smaller and more approachable? Reducing these barriers will make it easier to create a sense of need and motivate people to action. Reward The final portion of ELMR is reward- creating a sense of approval and validation about oneÃ¢â¬â¢s decision. Reward can come in many forms, but most are either intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic rewards are associated with a product that offers benefit in the form of time, finances or knowledge. Extrinsic rewards tap into personal desire, and usually comprise social or career accomplishments. Recommended Reading: How to Write More Emotional Headlines That Get More Shares Applying ELMR to Your Content Strategy Applying the ELMR framework to your content marketing strategy can help you create more powerful content that in turn influences user triggers. Content that delivers well-timed triggers can drive signups, improve social engagementÃ and increase conversions. Applying the ELMR framework can help you create more powerful content.Content Marketing and Emotion Humans have and always will be driven by rewards, whether theyÃ¢â¬â¢re related to finances, career, knowledge, or something else. By thinking from the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, content marketers can determine the rewards associated with their product. According to Nir Eyal, author of Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products,Ã the most powerful triggers work in tandem with negative emotions. Negative feelings make us feel distressed and distracted. So when a marketing message or piece of content briefly relieves that negative thought, it creates an addictive trigger. As Eyal puts it, Ã¢â¬Å"to make a truly effective hook, we have to capitalize on usersÃ¢â¬â¢ negative emotions.Ã¢â¬ So how do we create content that relieves a negative emotion? Consider this Instagram post from Whole Foods as an example: The copy in this post reminds customers that they should be eating an apple a day (a healthy suggestion theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve been hearing throughout their lives). Assuming that most people donÃ¢â¬â¢t eat an apple a day, these words effectively tap into a sense of guilt, or fear about being unhealthy. After triggering these negative emotions, the post offers an overt push, Ã¢â¬Å"make it happenÃ¢â¬ and suggests a number of healthy, easy recipes. Thinking about eating the recipes in the picture offers relief from the guilt that people feel about not eating enough healthy food. This creates an addictive sense of need that entices people to walk into their nearest Whole Foods and buy a bag of apples and healthy toppings. In your content marketing strategy, consider this: What are my customers afraid of? How does my product or service alleviate that feareven if only for a moment? In your content marketing strategy, consider this: What are my customers afraid of?Content Marketing and Logic Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve determined the emotions that influence your customers, you need to introduce logical rewards that justify those emotions. The logical brain is constantly searching for a quick win of support and justification, and finding a way to influence it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the hard part. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s most important is that your logical appeal is well-timed and balanced in scale and scope. That way, it creates the right amount of confirmation at the right time, without overwhelming the user or turning them away. To see how this works in blog content, take a look this article on patio furniture from retailer Crate and Barrel. This post, titled Ã¢â¬Å"How to Give Your Patio a Summer MakeoverÃ¢â¬ is filled with logical appeals that justify buying Crate and BarrelÃ¢â¬â¢s products. In addition to a smattering of enticing photos featuring gorgeous summer weather (and an adorable dog to boot), the writing is filled with logical queues. In a section on choosing outdoor pillows, the post explains that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re Ã¢â¬Å"stuffed with quick drying polyester fiberfillÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"polypropylene yarn.Ã¢â¬ These product details alone arenÃ¢â¬â¢t enough to justify purchasing the pillows. But the sentence that follows, however, is what does the trick: Ã¢â¬Å"In other words, they dry quickly after a rainstorm!Ã¢â¬ Summer rainstorms are common, and wet patio furniture is a common annoyance for homeowners. The fact that the pillows dry quickly after a rainstorm is a perfect justification for buying these stylish pillows over others. In your content strategy, think about how you can turn a product feature into a relatable story. What do your customers value? How can your content strategy tap into those values in a way that relates to their everyday life? Appeal to your their sense of logic. Tell them something about your story that feels impossible to refute (who can disagree with the benefit of quick-drying patio pillows, for example?). Recommended Reading: The Complete 14-Step Content Strategy That Will Boost Your By 434% Content Marketing and Motivation As we discussed earlier, the motivation portion of user psychology is about reducing barriers to purchase. When you understand the things that prevent your user from buying, you can create content that helps reduce these barriers. If your company is in the retail fashion space, for example, you might automatically think that key barriers are only financial- things like item price or shipping cost. But what about more complex barriers, like how a product fits or whether or not it can be paired well with a personÃ¢â¬â¢s existing wardrobe? Fashion retailer Aerie taps into such complex concerns on its branded fashion and lifestyle blog. For example, in the post Ã¢â¬Å"Styling the Cutout Floral Dress with Amanda OleriÃ¢â¬ Aerie has a fashion blogger style one of its main seasonal products in her own way. This is more motivational than a simple product page because it provides styling tips from someone that the audience can relate to. This is perhaps the most effective approach for online retailers because it makes the product more approachablecustomers can visualize it for themselves. Regardless of barriers like price, people always have reservations about buying things online. Connecting to your users through an influencer or a blogger helps reduce emotional barriers around sizing, fit and style, making the thought of purchasing items feel more realistic to customers. Recommended Reading: How to Boost Engagement With Micro-Influencers the Right Way Content Marketing and Reward Both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards create an opportunity to influence buyers. However, intrinsic rewards differ more from person to person, making them harder to tap into. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s where putting yourself in the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s shoes comes in handy. Think about what your target audience values most, on a personal level. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s say your target audience is moms. Providing their children with a memorable, happy, and joy-filled childhood is a desire of all moms.Ã Disney is one brand that consistently taps into these intrinsic desires because itÃ¢â¬â¢s based on the idea of an experienceand the happiness and joy it brings. In DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s online website series Ã¢â¬Å"Mom Panel Monday,Ã¢â¬ Disney moms have the opportunity to share what they and their families love about the theme park and other Disney experiential products. This video, Ã¢â¬Å"Moms Panel Monday: A MomÃ¢â¬â¢s Take on Cruising with Disney Cruise Line,Ã¢â¬ Ã features one mom discussing her familyÃ¢â¬â¢s experience on a cruise. This strategy is effective because it shows immediateÃ rewards that a Disney Cruise might bring, like good food, live music and fun games. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s even more powerful is that it also shows the long-term rewards, like friendships and memories, that a Disney Cruise might bring a mom and her family. By hearing another mom say things about what her family loves and what makes them happy, parents (and moms especially) are motivated to create that experience for their own kids. To truly put yourself in your customerÃ¢â¬â¢s shoes, think about what you might have in common with them. If you were them, what would be your primary reason for purchasing your product? Make it a habit of creating marketing content from this perspective. To truly put yourself in your customerÃ¢â¬â¢s shoes, think about what you might have in common with...Applying User Psychology and Content Marketing: How to Get Started User psychologyÃ¢â¬â¢s core method, the ELMR framework, is designed to help you connect with consumers on a deeper, more personal level. It works by exposing the core triggers that motivate your customers to interact with your brand and purchase your products or services. Here are a few easy, effective ways to start applying it to your content strategy. Conduct a Brainstorming Session Before you dive in and start drafting, gather a few team members to help list all the desires a customer might associate with your product. Depending on the size of your team, try to get people from different departments (thus, different perspectives) to help you here. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re not sure whose perspectives might be helpful with this exercise, here are some suggestions: Marketing managers Sales representatives Product developers Founders/Leadership Customer support representatives Researchers Data analysts Reach out to your team members and let them know you need their help with a brainstorm, but leave the topic a mystery for now. It will help if everyone comes to the meeting with a fresh mind and no preconceived opinions. This way, the ideas the team comes up with together will trigger new thoughts quickly and on the spot, leading to a dynamic and effective brainstorm. Utilizing something like a whiteboard will be really helpful in jotting down ideas in a flow chart, scatter plot chart or something else that helps you organize quick thoughts. Your chart might begin to look something like this, which means youÃ¢â¬â¢re off to a good start: During the brainstorm be sure to write down everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts and ideas, even if something seems silly at the time. The benefit to brainstorming is that you never know what word or thought might ignite your next genius idea. Once your chart seems full, you can thank everyone for their help and get started on distilling the strongest ideas. Recommended Reading: The Best 30-Minute Content Marketing Brainstorming Process Identify Rewards to Connect with your Product Next, you should start considering the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards that your customers could associate with your product. It will be helpful to start a list for this somewhere that you can keep track of, like a Google Spreadsheet. Since youÃ¢â¬â¢ve gone through a brainstorm already, this is an opportunity to gather everything in one place, so I suggest using columns in your sheet to organize. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s how to do that: Open a Google Spreadsheet and use columns to store the ideas you came up with in your initial team brainstorm, similar to this: Now use additional columns to jot down intrinsic and extrinsic rewards associated with your product. If you need some ideas, here are some examples of topics that fall under each category: LetÃ¢â¬â¢s take the desires we identified above, for example, to identify a few rewards that someone might gain as a result of buying your product: Desire: To be more attractive Ã Rewards: Social acceptance, personal confidence, looking great Desire: To learn something new every day Ã Rewards: Impressing others, personal satisfaction, new skills Desire: To accomplish something on your own Ã Rewards: Sense of self-worth, personal confidence, task completion Now think about how to position those rewards clearly to customers in a meaningful and relatable way. The positioning ideas you come up with can be directly translated into new content pieces, so add those ideas to your spreadsheet in a final column for easy reference later on. Analyze Your Current Messaging Chances are, the topics and ideas youÃ¢â¬â¢ve identified through the process above may have led you towards value propositions and positioning statements that havenÃ¢â¬â¢t yet been part of your brandÃ¢â¬â¢s core messaging. This is a good thing! YouÃ¢â¬â¢re now thinking about marketing from a psychological perspective. You can now take a look at your current marketing messages with fresh perspective. If you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t done so already, creating a "Core Message Document" can help to collect everything in one place. That will allow you to easily edit, or built upon, your brand positioning which will be reflected in all of your content pieces. Use your new psychological perspective and include these points in your Core Message Document: Vision Mission Statements. What does your product and company strive for? Think about the emotions you hope to trigger when connecting with your customers. Positioning Statement.Ã What do you do better than anyone else? Think about how you can help your customers gain intrinsic and extrinsic rewards most effectively. Elevator Pitch.Ã How would you describe your product and company in under 30 seconds? Try to touch quickly on Emotion, Logic, Motivation, and Rewards. Taglines Slogans.Ã What is your product or company all about? Try to elicit an emotional response or use something that a customer might quickly associate with a reward. Key Messages.Ã What are three things you want everyone to know about your product? Identify a few key points and jot down short paragraphs for each. This is a great place to focus on the rewards youÃ¢â¬â¢ve identified! Competitive Differentiation.Ã How do your key messages set you apart from competitors? Think about how you can help your customers achieve their desires in a way that no one else in the market can. Value Propositions. What is the value of your product in the mind of the customer? Take extra care here to stretch that psychological muscle youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been strengthening throughout this whole process. Benefit Statements.Ã What is the benefit of buying your product? YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve already done the hard part on this one, these can be directly tied to the rewards youÃ¢â¬â¢ve identified. After all of this, you should have new ideas from a healthy brainstorm session to help customers psychologically connect with your product, and a hefty document full of fresh message points to weave into future content pieces. When applied to your content strategy, user psychology can create an addictive product that keeps customers coming back for more. Just remember to step out of your own head and think like your target audience- empathy drives better customer interactions, which leads to true authenticity. And as with all good marketing experiments: test, measure, and repeat.